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Early Mortality in Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
TLDR
Significant heterogeneity in outcomes and in methods of reporting outcomes exist among published studies evaluating mortality in the first year after ART initiation in LMIC, and opportunistic illnesses such as TB and wasting syndrome are the most common reported causes of death.
Tuberculosis and lung damage: from epidemiology to pathophysiology
TLDR
An overview of the epidemiological literature on post-TB lung impairment is provided and data on the pathogenesis of lung injury from the perspective of dysregulated immune responses and immunogenetics is linked to.
Early versus delayed antiretroviral therapy and cerebrospinal fluid fungal clearance in adults with HIV and cryptococcal meningitis.
TLDR
Early ART was not associated with improved CSF fungal clearance, but resulted in a high risk of CM-IRIS, and further research on optimal incorporation of ART into CM care is needed.
Pharmacy Refill Adherence Compared with CD4 Count Changes for Monitoring HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy
TLDR
Pharmacy refill adherence assessments were as accurate as CD4 counts for detecting current virologic failure in this cohort of patients on cART and have the potential to predict virology failure before it occurs, indicating the potential utility of adherence assessments for predicting future, rather than simply detecting current, virolic failure.
Antiretroviral Failure Despite High Levels of Adherence: Discordant Adherence-Response Relationship in Botswana
TLDR
Very high rates of adherence were present in this setting, yet virological failure occurred nonetheless, and future work should explore other factors that might explain treatment failure in the setting of high levels of adherence.
Impact of the human immunodeficiency virus on early multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Botswana.
TLDR
Results suggest that outcomes may be comparable in similar settings with access to individualized anti-tuberculosis treatment and HAART, suggesting that outcomes in similar setting with access of individualized MDR-TB care andHAART could be comparable.
Nonclassic measles infections in an immune population exposed to measles during a college bus trip
TLDR
Mild or asymptomatic measles infections are probably very common among measles‐immune persons exposed to measles cases and may be the most common manifestation of measles during outbreaks in highly immune populations.
Slow efavirenz metabolism genotype is common in Botswana.
TLDR
This research presents a novel and scalable approach called “SmartHR,” which aims to provide real-time information about the immune system’s response to infectious disease and its consequences.
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