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A Specific Interaction between the Cardiac Sodium Channel and Site-3 Toxin Anthopleurin B*
The polypeptide neurotoxin anthopleurin B (ApB) isolated from the venom of the sea anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica is one of a family of toxins that bind to the extracellular face ofExpand
Differences in the binding sites of two site-3 sodium channel toxins
This work examines the interaction of chimeric channels with a form of ApB in which the two nonconserved basic residues, Arg-12 and Lys-49, were converted to the corresponding neutral amino acids from ApA and concludes that the differential component of ApA binding is controlled by domain 4 and that some component ofApB binding is not shared by ApA. Expand
Multiple cationic residues of anthopleurin B that determine high affinity and channel isoform discrimination.
The role of cationic residues is investigated by characterizing toxin mutants in which two such residues are replaced simultaneously, which reduced affinity of the toxin for neuronal channels to a much greater extent than for cardiac channels and produced affinities only slightly lower than for ApA in each case. Expand
Direct Observation of a Preinactivated, Open State in BK Channels with β2 Subunits
It is demonstrated, using both macroscopic and single channel current recordings, that a preinactivated state is also a property of mSlo1+β2 channels, suggesting that channel opening and inactivation are at least partly separable in this channel. Expand
BK Channels with β3a Subunits Generate Use-Dependent Slow Afterhyperpolarizing Currents by an Inactivation-Coupled Mechanism
It is reported that as a consequence of a specific mechanism of inactivation, BK channels containing the β3a auxiliary subunit exhibit an anomalous slowing of channel closing, which produces a net repolarizing current flux that markedly exceeds that expected if all open channels had simply closed. Expand
A Guide Wire Uncoiling During a Central Line Exchange
A case of guide wire breakage is presented, a review of guidewire complications described in the literature, and suggestions for preventing guide wire complications are provided. Expand