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Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language.
TLDR
These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift.
High carrier frequency of the 35delG deafness mutation in European populations
TLDR
The 35delG carrier frequency of 1 in 51 in the overall European population clearly indicates that this genetic alteration is a major mutation for autosomal recessive deafness in Caucasoids, which should facilitate diagnosis of congenital deafness and allow early treatment of the affected subjects.
An apportionment of human DNA diversity.
TLDR
By partitioning genetic variances at three hierarchical levels of population subdivision, it is found that differences between members of the same population account for 84.4% of the total, which is in excellent agreement with estimates based on allele frequencies of classic, protein polymorphisms.
CYP2D6 worldwide genetic variation shows high frequency of altered activity variants and no continental structure
TLDR
The CYP2D6 diversity is far greater within than between populations and groups thereof, null or low-activity variants occur at high frequencies in various areas of the world, and linkage disequilibrium is lowest in Africa and highest in the Americas.
The origin of European cattle: evidence from modern and ancient DNA.
TLDR
Previously undescribed genetic evidence is presented in contrast with this view based on mtDNA sequences from five Italian aurochsen dated between 7,000 and 17,000 years B.P. and >1,000 modern cattle from 51 breeds to suggest the European cattle may represent a more variable and valuable genetic resource than previously realized.
Tracing past human male movements in northern/eastern Africa and western Eurasia: new clues from Y-chromosomal haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12.
TLDR
The geographic and quantitative analyses of haplogroup and microsatellite diversity is strongly suggestive of a northeastern African origin of E-M78, with a corridor for bidirectional migrations between northeastern and eastern Africa and trans-Mediterranean migrations directly from northern Africa to Europe.
A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for European Paternal Lineages
Most present-day European men inherited their Y chromosomes from the farmers who spread from the Near East 10,000 years ago, rather than from the hunter-gatherers of the Paleolithic.
Zones of sharp genetic change in Europe are also linguistic boundaries.
TLDR
Findings from "Wombling" support a model of genetic differentiation in Europe in which the genetic structure of the population is determined mainly by gene flow and admixture, rather than by adaptation to varying environmental conditions.
Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans
TLDR
Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, it is shown that the mtDNAs of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals.
Geographic patterns of mtDNA diversity in Europe.
TLDR
The distribution of the zones of highest mitochondrial variation (genetic boundaries) confirmed that the Saami are sharply differentiated from an otherwise rather homogeneous set of European samples, and an area of significant clinal variation was identified around the Mediterranean Sea (and not in the north), even though the differences between northern and southern populations were insignificant.
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