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An integrative theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function: adaptive gain and optimal performance.
Historically, the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system has been implicated in arousal, but recent findings suggest that this system plays a more complex and specific role in the control of
A role for lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons in reward seeking
It is shown that activation of lateral hypothalamus orexin neurons is strongly linked to preferences for cues associated with drug and food reward and reinstates an extinguished drug-seeking behaviour.
Decision making, the P3, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system.
The theoretical framework emerging from this research synthesis suggests that the P3 reflects the response of the LC-NE system to the outcome of internal decision-making processes and the consequent effects of noradrenergic potentiation of information processing.
Activity of norepinephrine-containing locus coeruleus neurons in behaving rats anticipates fluctuations in the sleep-waking cycle
The NE-LC system may globally bias the responsiveness of target neurons and thereby influence overall behavioral orientation, generally consistent with previous proposals that the NE- LC system is involved in regulating cortical and behavioral arousal.
Adaptive gain and the role of the locus coeruleus–norepinephrine system in optimal performance
It is proposed that prefrontal areas of the locus coeruleus–norepinephrine system produce the above patterns of LC activity to optimize the utility of performance on both short and long time scales.
The role of locus coeruleus in the regulation of cognitive performance.
Noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons were recorded in monkeys performing a visual discrimination task, and a computational model was developed addressing the role of the LC brain system in cognitive performance, suggesting electrotonic coupling in LC may play an important role in attentional modulation and the regulation of goal-directed versus exploratory behaviors.
Arousal and reward: a dichotomy in orexin function
Linking Context with Reward: A Functional Circuit from Hippocampal CA3 to Ventral Tegmental Area
A hippocampus–to-ventral tegmental area pathway regulates dopamine neurons and is necessary for reinstatement of context-induced cocaine-seeking and appears to be an important substrate by which environmental context regulates goal-directed behavior.
Locus coeruleus neurons in monkey are selectively activated by attended cues in a vigilance task
Results show that LC neurons are activated selectively by attended stimuli that demand a rapid response in this task, and that such LC responses may contribute to conditioned behavioral responses.