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Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
This report reviews the collective experience with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), particularly since the advent of highly active antiretroviral treatment, and their definitional criteria; discusses the impact of comorbidities; and suggests inclusion of the term asymptomatic neuroc cognitive impairment to categorize individuals with subclinical impairment.
Natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with multiple sclerosis: lessons from 28 cases
Immune surveillance in multiple sclerosis patients treated with natalizumab
Whether natalizumab, an antibody against very late activating antigen (VLA)‐4, interferes with central nervous system immune surveillance as assessed by leukocyte cell numbers and cellular phenotypes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood is tested.
Altered CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratios in cerebrospinal fluid of natalizumab-treated patients with multiple sclerosis.
Natalizumab therapy decreased the CSF CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio of patients with MS to levels similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, which may have implications for the observation that some natalizUMab-treated Patients with MS developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder: epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment
An overview of the current concepts in the field of HAND is given and suggestions for the diagnostic and therapeutic management are provided.
HIV dementia: the role of the basal ganglia and dopaminergic systems
The evidence for involvement of basal ganglia and, in particular, the dopaminergic systems, in HIV dementia is described and novel therapeutic strategies that may be beneficial in the treatment of this disorder are suggested.
A placebo-controlled trial of gabapentin for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathies
GBP was more effective than placebo in reducing pain and sleep interference in patients with HIV-SN, and was generally well tolerated.
Mechanism- and experience-based strategies to optimize treatment response to the capsaicin 8% cutaneous patch in patients with localized neuropathic pain
Treatment with the capsaicin 8% cutaneous patch was generally safe and well tolerated and a modified quantitative sensory testing (QST) should be developed for clinical practice in order to better understand the correlation of sensory profiles and response to Capsaicin treatment.
Increased dopaminergic neurotransmission in therapy-naïve asymptomatic HIV patients is not associated with adaptive changes at the dopaminergic synapses
These findings show activation of central DA systems without development of adaptive responses at DA synapses in asymptomatic HIV infection, providing a clue to the synergism between DA medication or drugs of abuse and HIV infection to exacerbate and accelerate HIV neuropsychiatric disease, a central issue in the neurobiology of HIV.
Early microstructural white matter changes in patients with HIV: A diffusion tensor imaging study
Patients with HIV-MRN have evidence of FA-alterations in similar regions that are lesioned in HIV-MRL patients, suggesting common neuropathological processes, and these results suggest a biological rather than a reactive origin of depression in AIDS-patients.