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Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: Principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial
Overall health risks exceeded benefits from use of combined estrogen plus progestin for an average 5.2-year follow-up among healthy postmenopausal US women, and the results indicate that this regimen should not be initiated or continued for primary prevention of CHD. Expand
Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.
The use of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) increases the risk of stroke, decreases therisk of hip fracture, and does not affect CHD incidence in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy over an average of 6.8 years, indicating no overall benefit. Expand
Long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of cardiovascular events in women.
Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease and death among postmenopausal women and the between-city effect appeared to be smaller than the within- city effect. Expand
Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures.
Among healthy postmenopausal women, calcium with vitamin D supplementation resulted in a small but significant improvement in hip bone density, did not significantly reduce hip fracture, and increased the risk of kidney stones. Expand
Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer.
Daily supplementation of calcium with vitamin D for seven years had no effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women, and the long latency associated with the development of colorescopy cancer, along with the seven-year duration of the trial, may have contributed to this null finding. Expand
Menopausal hormone therapy and health outcomes during the intervention and extended poststopping phases of the Women's Health Initiative randomized trials.
Most risks and benefits dissipated postintervention, although some elevation in breast cancer risk persisted during cumulative follow-up and the 2 WHI hormone therapy trials do not support use of this therapy. Expand
A cautionary note on inference for marginal regression models with longitudinal data and general correlated response data
Inference for cross-sectional models using longitudinal data, can be accomplished with generalized estimating equations (Zeger and Liang, 1992). We show that either a diagonal working covarianceExpand
The Women's Health Initiative recruitment methods and results.
One of the most challenging aspects of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) was the recruitment of more than 161,000 women for this long-term prevention trial and observational study. The WHI had manyExpand
Ethnicity and breast cancer: factors influencing differences in incidence and outcome.
Differences in breast cancer incidence rates between most racial/ethnic groups were largely explained by risk factor distribution except in African Americans, however, breast cancers in African American women more commonly had characteristics of poor prognosis, which may contribute to their increased mortality after diagnosis. Expand
Conjugated equine oestrogen and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: extended follow-up of the Women's Health Initiative randomised placebo-controlled
The findings provide reassurance for women with hysterectomy seeking relief of climacteric symptoms in terms of the effects of oestrogen use for about 5 years on breast cancer incidence and mortality, but the data do not support use of Oestrogen for breast cancer risk reduction. Expand