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Untangling the concepts of disability, frailty, and comorbidity: implications for improved targeting and care.
A narrative review of current understanding of the definitions and distinguishing characteristics of each of these conditions, including their clinical relevance and distinct prevention and therapeutic issues, and how they are related is provided.
Prevalence, expenditures, and complications of multiple chronic conditions in the elderly.
Better primary care, especially coordination of care, could reduce avoidable hospitalization rates, especially for individuals with multiple chronic conditions.
Population aging: a comparison among industrialized countries.
International comparisons suggest that the United States is generally well positioned to cope with population aging; however, three areas should be carefully monitored: heavy reliance on private-sector funding of retirement, coverage of pharmaceuticals for the elderly, and a high proportion of private long-term care financing.
It's the prices, stupid: why the United States is so different from other countries.
The data show that the United States spends more on health care than any other country, however, on most measures of health services use, theUnited States is below the OECD median.
The relation between funding by the National Institutes of Health and the burden of disease.
A cross-sectional study comparing estimates of disease-specific funding in 1996 with data on six measures of the burden of disease found that the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, and dementia all received relatively generous funding, regardless of which measure was used as the basis for calculating support.
The Relationship Between a Dementia Diagnosis, Chronic Illness, Medicare Expenditures, and Hospital Use
Whether dementia increases medical expenditures, the probability of hospitalization, and potentially preventable hospitalization is investigated, controlling for variables including age and comorbidity.
Out-of-pocket medical spending for care of chronic conditions.
Out-of-pocket spending for prescription drugs was substantial for both elderly and nonelderly persons with chronic conditions, and the level of this spending also varied by age and insurance coverage, among other characteristics.