• Publications
  • Influence
The magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information.
The theory provides us with a yardstick for calibrating the authors' stimulus materials and for measuring the performance of their subjects, and the concepts and measures provided by the theory provide a quantitative way of getting at some of these questions.
An Analysis of Perceptual Confusions Among Some English Consonants
Sixteen English consonants were spoken over voice communication systems with frequency distortion and with random masking noise. The listeners were forced to guess at every sound and a count was made
The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. 1956.
The case history is told of some experiments that tested how accurately people can assign numbers to the magnitudes of various aspects of a stimulus, and how this number plagues me.
Finitary models of language users
It is proposed to describe talkers and listeners to describe the users of language rather than the language itself, just as the authors' knowledge of arithmetic is not merely the collection of their arithmetic responses, habits, or dispositions.
The Intelligibility of Interrupted Speech
The paper concerns the effect of intermittent interruptions of the speech wave upon intelligibility as measured by word articulation tests. The principal experimental variables are: the interruption
The masking of speech.
The intelligibility of speech as a function of the context of the test materials.
For many years communication engineers have used a psychophysical method called the "articulation test" (2, 3). An announcer reads lists :of syllables, words, or sentences to a group of listeners who
Sensitivity to Changes in the Intensity of White Noise and Its Relation to Masking and Loudness
Sensitivity to changes in the intensity of a random noise was determined over a wide range of intensities. The just detectable increment in the intensity of the noise is of the same order of
Finite State Languages