The PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line responds to nerve growth factor (NGF) by gradually exiting from the cell cycle and differentiating to a sympathetic neuronal phenotype. We have shown previously () that NGF induces the expression of the p21 WAF1/CIP1/Sdi1 (p21) cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor protein and the G1 phase cyclin, cyclin D1. In this… (More)
We have examined the effects of NGF on components of the PC12 cell cycle machinery. We show that NGF represses over 6-8 d the levels of specific cdk kinase proteins and the G2-M phase specific cyclin B1 and the S phase marker PCNA as well as the level of phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. All of these changes may provide a basis for a NGF… (More)
With the development of Micro Electro Mechanical System(MEMS), it's application in the fields of biomedical engineering becomes a vital consideration. This paper describes the advantages of Minimally invasive Surgery (MIS) and its applications. A novel medical endoscope driven by micro robot is also introduced.