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Measurement of cerebral arterial and venous blood volumes during increased cerebral blood flow can provide important information regarding hemodynamic regulation under normal, pathological, and neuronally active conditions. In particular, the change in venous blood volume induced by neural activity is one critical component of the blood oxygenation(More)
The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism can be modeled as a complex interplay between CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and CMRO2. Positive BOLD signal changes are presumably caused by CBF changes in excess of increases in CMRO2. Because this uncoupling between CBF and CMRO2 may not always be present, the magnitude of BOLD changes(More)
We investigated the local and remote vascular changes evoked by activation of the cerebellar parallel fibers (PFs). The PFs were stimulated (25-150 microA, 30 Hz) in halothane-anesthetized rats equipped with a cranial window. The changes in arteriolar and venular diameter produced by PF stimulation were measured with the use of a videomicroscopy system.(More)
Blood-brain barrier permeability alteration, vasogenic brain edema, and infarction, which are more extensive after 3 hours of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 3 hours of reperfusion than after 6 hours of permanent MCAO, develop in rats after prolonged focal cerebral ischemia. Protective effects of excitatory amino acid receptor(More)
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images from rats during acute cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion were analyzed for correspondence with changes in brain water, cation concentrations, and Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity measured in vitro after 30 or 60 min of ischemia. In the ischemic hemisphere, signal intensity was increased(More)
Using a mouse model with intraluminal blockade of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) which produced both cortical and striatal infarction, the effect that superoxide radicals have on cerebral infarction, local cerebral blood flow, and neurological deficits after 24 h of permanent focal cerebral ischemia in transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing human(More)
Administration of ethyl pyruvate, which is formed from pyruvate and ethanol, has been found capable of rescuing cells injured by oxidative stress. In one perspective the rescue has been postulated to be metabolic, with the resulting intracellular delivery of pyruvate seen as providing substrate for the TCA Cycle, making it possible to counteract sequela of(More)
It has been proposed that oxygen-derived radicals, superoxide in particular, are involved in the alteration of blood-brain barrier permeability and the pathogenesis of brain edema following trauma, ischemia, and reperfusion injury. Using transgenic mice that overexpress the human gene for copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase, we studied the role of superoxide(More)
1. We investigated the neural mechanisms of the increases in blood flow produced by synaptic activity using the parallel fiber (PF) system of the cerebellum as a model. The midline cerebellum was exposed in anesthetized rats and the PFs were stimulated with tungsten microelectrodes. Cerebellar blood flow (BFcrb) was recorded using a laser-Doppler probe,(More)