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Measurement of cerebral arterial and venous blood volumes during increased cerebral blood flow can provide important information regarding hemodynamic regulation under normal, pathological, and neuronally active conditions. In particular, the change in venous blood volume induced by neural activity is one critical component of the blood oxygenation(More)
The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism can be modeled as a complex interplay between CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and CMRO2. Positive BOLD signal changes are presumably caused by CBF changes in excess of increases in CMRO2. Because this uncoupling between CBF and CMRO2 may not always be present, the magnitude of BOLD changes(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We have demonstrated in a previous study that superoxide radicals play a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral infarction, using a transgenic mouse model of distal middle cerebral artery occlusion, permanent ipsilateral cerebral carotid artery occlusion, and 1-hour contralateral cerebral carotid artery occlusion that produced(More)
We investigated the local and remote vascular changes evoked by activation of the cerebellar parallel fibers (PFs). The PFs were stimulated (25-150 microA, 30 Hz) in halothane-anesthetized rats equipped with a cranial window. The changes in arteriolar and venular diameter produced by PF stimulation were measured with the use of a videomicroscopy system.(More)
In order to study the biological activities of tea preparations and purified tea polyphenols, their growth inhibitory effects were investigated using four human cancer cell lines. Growth inhibition was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation after 48 h of treatment. The green tea catechins (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC)(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are highly active immune effector cells that may either positively or negatively regulate the growth of various malignant cells, depending on the biological context. However, the role of TAMs in human prostate cancer progression is unclear. TAMs were immunohistochemically labeled using a monoclonal (CD68) antibody in(More)
CONCLUSION Memantine, an antiglutamatergic drug, has been proposed as a treatment for tinnitus. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine if memantine would prevent salicylate-induced tinnitus. Local field potentials were also recorded from auditory cortex to determine what effect salicylate, memantine, and the combination of both drugs would(More)
Blood-brain barrier permeability alteration, vasogenic brain edema, and infarction, which are more extensive after 3 hours of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 3 hours of reperfusion than after 6 hours of permanent MCAO, develop in rats after prolonged focal cerebral ischemia. Protective effects of excitatory amino acid receptor(More)
Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) cause intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), especially in young adults. Molecular characterization of lesional tissue provides evidence for involvement of both angiogenic and inflammatory pathways, but the pathogenesis remains obscure and medical therapy is lacking. Abnormal expression patterns have been observed for(More)
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images from rats during acute cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion were analyzed for correspondence with changes in brain water, cation concentrations, and Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity measured in vitro after 30 or 60 min of ischemia. In the ischemic hemisphere, signal intensity was increased(More)