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BACKGROUND Registry data on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who undergo pancreatic islet transplantation indicate that only 8 percent are free of the need for insulin therapy at one year. METHODS Seven consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes and a history of severe hypoglycemia and metabolic instability underwent islet transplantation in(More)
Based upon existing methods of isolating fetal porcine islet tissue, a simple, reliable procedure was developed for the preparation of porcine neonatal islet cell aggregates with a reproducible and defined cellular composition. After 9 d of in vitro culture, tissue from one neonatal pig pancreas yielded approximately 50,000 islet cell aggregates, consisting(More)
Diabetes is a chronic debilitating disease that results from insufficient production of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Islet cell replacement can effectively treat diabetes but is currently severely limited by the reliance upon cadaveric donor tissue. We have developed a protocol to efficiently differentiate commercially available human embryonic stem(More)
Recent progress in islet isolation from the pancreas of large mammals including man, accentuated the need for the development of precise and reproducible techniques to assess islet yield. In this report both quantitative and qualitative criteria for islet isolation assessment were discussed, the main topics being the determination of number, volume, purity,(More)
OBJECTIVE Differentiation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells to fully developed cell types holds great therapeutic promise. Despite significant progress, the conversion of hES cells to stable, fully differentiated endocrine cells that exhibit physiologically regulated hormone secretion has not yet been achieved. Here we describe an efficient(More)
In an attempt to reduce the variability in the yields of human islets isolations and to identify donor factors that were potentially deleterious, we retrospectively reviewed 153 human islets isolations in our center over a 3-year period. Isolations were performed using controlled collagenase perfusion via the duct, automated dissociation, and Ficoll(More)
The smaller form of the autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase, GAD65 (formerly the 64,000 M(r) autoantigen), is a major target of humoral autoimmunity in type I diabetes. Human autoantisera have been used extensively to characterize the GAD65 antigen in both rat and human islets, but the protein has escaped detection in mouse islets. We have now analyzed(More)
Insulin is both a hormone regulating energy metabolism and a growth factor. We and others have shown that physiological doses of insulin initiate complex signals in primary human and mouse beta-cells, but the functional significance of insulin's effects on this cell type remains unclear. In the present study, the role of insulin in beta-cell apoptosis was(More)
Islet amyloid, which is mainly composed of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), is a pathological characteristic of type 2 diabetes and also forms in cultured and transplanted islets. We used islet beta cells as well as two ex vivo models of islet amyloid formation, cultured human islets and hIAPP-expressing transgenic mouse islets with or without beta(More)
BACKGROUND The optimal route of nutrition in severe pancreatitis is controversial. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is preferred, but enteral nutrition (EN) promises to attenuate inflammation and prevent sepsis. We hypothesized that EN was at least equivalent to PN in reducing inflammation, providing effective nutrition and being cost-effective. METHODS We(More)