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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
We describe the first potent and selective blocker of the class E Ca2+channel. SNX-482, a novel 41 amino acid peptide present in the venom of the African tarantula, Hysterocrates gigas, was identified through its ability to inhibit human class E Ca2+ channels stably expressed in a mammalian cell line. An IC50 of 15-30 nM was obtained for block of the class(More)
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in children for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic effects are poorly understood. Whereas methylphenidate blocks the dopamine transporter (main mechanism for removal of extracellular dopamine), it is(More)
1. Large conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels were identified in freshly dissociated rat supraoptic neurones using patch clamp techniques. 2. The single channel conductance of cell body BK channels, recorded from inside-out patches in symmetric 145 mM K+, was 246.1 pS, compared with 213 pS in nerve ending BK channels (P<0.01). 3. At low open(More)
BACKGROUND RNA-protein interactions stabilize many viruses and also the nucleoprotein cores of enveloped animal viruses (e.g. retroviruses). The nucleoprotein particles are frequently pleomorphic and generally unstable due to the lack of strong protein-protein interactions in their capsids. Principles governing their structures are unknown because crystals(More)
BACKGROUND Chemokines are involved in the migration of leukocytes and have been implicated in several inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Some of their receptors have been proposed to mediate HIV infection. OBJECTIVE To determine changes in chemokine and receptor expression in HIV encephalitis, and to determine whether upregulation leads(More)
To investigate the functional organization in the monkey inferotemporal cortex, which is the last exclusively visual area along the ventral visual cortical pathway, optical imaging based on intrinsic signals was carried out. We first conducted single-cell recordings with microelectrodes and determined the features critical for the activation of single(More)
AIMS The purpose of this study was to discuss how the environmental inputs and anthropogenic activities impact bacterial communities in the sediments of a shallow, eutrophic and temperate freshwater lake. METHODS AND RESULTS Sediment cores were collected from Lake Dongping, located in Taian, Shandong, China. All samples were processed within 4 h of(More)
Three structural forms of type 1 Lang reovirus (virions, intermediate subviral particles [ISVPs], and cores) have been examined by cryoelectron microscopy (cryoEM) and image reconstruction at 27 to 32-A resolution. Analysis of the three-dimensional maps and known biochemical composition allows determination of capsid protein location, globular shape,(More)
Through extensive training, humans can become "visual experts, " able to visually distinguish subtle differences among similar objects with greater ease than those who are untrained. To understand the neural mechanisms behind this acquired discrimination ability, adult monkeys were fully trained to discriminate 28 moderately complex shapes. The training(More)