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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
We describe the first potent and selective blocker of the class E Ca2+channel. SNX-482, a novel 41 amino acid peptide present in the venom of the African tarantula, Hysterocrates gigas, was identified through its ability to inhibit human class E Ca2+ channels stably expressed in a mammalian cell line. An IC50 of 15-30 nM was obtained for block of the class(More)
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in children for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic effects are poorly understood. Whereas methylphenidate blocks the dopamine transporter (main mechanism for removal of extracellular dopamine), it is(More)
A multiplex PCR assay for detection of genes for staphylococcal enterotoxins A to E (entA, entB, entC, entD, and entE), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst), exfoliative toxins A and B (etaA and etaB), and intrinsic methicillin resistance (mecA) was developed. Detection of femA was used as an internal positive control. The multiplex PCR assay combined the(More)
Through extensive training, humans can become "visual experts, " able to visually distinguish subtle differences among similar objects with greater ease than those who are untrained. To understand the neural mechanisms behind this acquired discrimination ability, adult monkeys were fully trained to discriminate 28 moderately complex shapes. The training(More)
The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins controls many aspects of growth and patterning in animal development. In Drosophila, Hh acts by preventing the formation of a truncated repressor form of Cubitus interruptus (Ci) and stimulating the transcriptional activity of full-length Ci. Here, we provide evidence that Costal2 (Cos2) and Suppressor of Fused(More)
To investigate the functional organization in the monkey inferotemporal cortex, which is the last exclusively visual area along the ventral visual cortical pathway, optical imaging based on intrinsic signals was carried out. We first conducted single-cell recordings with microelectrodes and determined the features critical for the activation of single(More)
H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) has emerged as a pathogenic entity for a variety of species, including humans, in recent years. Here we report an outbreak among migratory birds on Lake Qinghaihu, China, in May and June 2005, in which more than a thousand birds were affected. Pancreatic necrosis and abnormal neurological symptoms were the major clinical(More)
Dysregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with a variety of diseases, including colorectal cancer. By comparing more than 200 miRNAs in 13 pairs of matched colorectal cancer and normal adjacent tissue samples through qRT-PCR and microarray analysis, we found a widespread disruption of miRNA expression during colorectal tumorigenesis. In(More)
To investigate the functional organization of object recognition, the technique of optical imaging was applied to the primate inferotemporal cortex, which is thought to be essential for object recognition. The features critical for the activation of single cells were first determined in unit recordings with electrodes. In the subsequent optical imaging,(More)