Plants are the principal source of iron in most diets, yet iron availability often limits plant growth. In response to iron deficiency, Arabidopsis roots induce the expression of the divalent cation transporter IRT1. Here, we present genetic evidence that IRT1 is essential for the uptake of iron from the soil. An Arabidopsis knockout mutant in IRT1 is… (More)
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that control many aspects of plant growth and development. BRs bind to the plasma membrane receptor kinase BRI1, and act through a signalling pathway that involves a glycogen synthase kinase-3-like kinase (BIN2) and a serine/threonine phosphatase (BSU1). Previous models proposed that BIN2 negatively regulates BR… (More)
Brassinosteroids (BRs), the polyhydroxylated steroid hormones of plants, regulate the growth and differentiation of plants throughout their life cycle. Over the past several years, genetic and biochemical approaches have yielded great progress in understanding BR signaling. Unlike their animal counterparts, BRs are perceived at the plasma membrane by direct… (More)
Iron deficiency induces a complex set of responses in plants, including developmental and physiological changes, to increase iron uptake from soil. In Arabidopsis, many transporters involved in the absorption and distribution of iron have been identified over the past decade. However, little is known about the signaling pathways and networks driving the… (More)
Plants use the same set of co-receptors to mediate distinct responses to external signals. Brassinosteroid signaling serves as a test case to unravel the mechanisms of receptor-co-receptor activation and initiation of a specific signaling cascade.
In plants, the uptake of nitrate from the soil is a critical process controlled by complex regulatory networks that target nitrate transporters in the roots. In this issue, Ho et al. (2009) show that phosphorylation of the CHL1 nitrate transporter allows the plant root to sense and respond to different nitrate concentrations in the soil.
Plasma membrane proteins play pivotal roles in mediating responses to endogenous and environmental cues. Regulation of membrane protein levels and establishment of polarity are fundamental for many cellular processes. In plants, IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1) is the major root iron transporter but is also responsible for the absorption of other… (More)
Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones that control many aspects of plant growth and development, and are perceived at the cell surface by the plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase BRI1. Here we show that BRI1 is post-translationally modified by K63 polyubiquitin chains in vivo. Using both artificial ubiquitination of BRI1 and generation of an… (More)
– Due to the criticality of spatial data in decision making processes that range from military targeting to urban planning it is vital that transmission of spatial data be authenticable and secure. Cryptographic methods can be utilized for this purpose, however they can be relatively slow, especially when encrypting voluminous quantities of data such as is… (More)