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Nuclear shape and size are emerging as mechanistic regulators of genome function. Yet, the coupling between chromatin assembly and various nuclear and cytoplasmic scaffolds is poorly understood. The present work explores the structural organization of a prestressed nucleus in a variety of cellular systems ranging from cells in culture to those in an(More)
ATR controls chromosome integrity and chromatin dynamics. We have previously shown that yeast Mec1/ATR promotes chromatin detachment from the nuclear envelope to counteract aberrant topological transitions during DNA replication. Here, we provide evidence that ATR activity at the nuclear envelope responds to mechanical stress. Human ATR associates with the(More)
The polymerization of RecA on individual double-stranded DNA molecules is studied. A linear DNA (lambda DNA, 48.5 Kb), anchored at one end to a cover glass and at the other end to an optically trapped 3-micrometers diameter polystyrene bead, serves as a template. The elongation caused by RecA assembly is measured in the presence of ATP and ATP[gammaS]. By(More)
Organ size is controlled by the concerted action of biochemical and physical processes. Although mechanical forces are known to regulate cell and tissue behavior, as well as organogenesis, the precise molecular events that integrate mechanical and biochemical signals to control these processes are not fully known. The recently delineated Hippo-tumor(More)
Physical forces in the form of substrate rigidity or geometrical constraints have been shown to alter gene expression profile and differentiation programs. However, the underlying mechanism of gene regulation by these mechanical cues is largely unknown. In this work, we use micropatterned substrates to alter cellular geometry (shape, aspect ratio, and size)(More)
Genome organization within the cell nucleus is a result of chromatin condensation achieved by histone tail-tail interactions and other nuclear proteins that counter the outward entropic pressure of the polymeric DNA. We probed the entropic swelling of chromatin driven by enzymatic disruption of these interactions in isolated mammalian cell nuclei. The(More)
Post-translational modifications of the histone tails and other chromatin binding proteins affect the stability of chromatin structure. In this study, we have purified chromatin from live cell nuclei using a fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) and studied the structural stability of this self-assembled structure. Using total internal reflection(More)
Cellular differentiation and developmental programs require changing patterns of gene expression. Recent experiments have revealed that chromatin organization is highly dynamic within living cells, suggesting possible mechanisms to alter gene expression programs, yet the physical basis of this organization is unclear. In this article, we contrast the(More)
Pattern formation in 3D random media has been a topic of interest in soft matter and biological systems. However, the onset of long-range microscopic ordering has not been explored in randomly moving self-propelled particles due to a lack of model systems as well as local probe techniques. In this article, we report on a novel experiment, using motile(More)
Cells integrate physicochemical signals on the nanoscale from the local microenvironment, resulting in altered functional nuclear landscape and gene expression. These alterations regulate diverse biological processes including stem cell differentiation, establishing robust developmental genetic programs and cellular homeostatic control systems. The(More)