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Genome organization within the cell nucleus is a result of chromatin condensation achieved by histone tail-tail interactions and other nuclear proteins that counter the outward entropic pressure of the polymeric DNA. We probed the entropic swelling of chromatin driven by enzymatic disruption of these interactions in isolated mammalian cell nuclei. The(More)
Nuclear shape and size are emerging as mechanistic regulators of genome function. Yet, the coupling between chromatin assembly and various nuclear and cytoplasmic scaffolds is poorly understood. The present work explores the structural organization of a prestressed nucleus in a variety of cellular systems ranging from cells in culture to those in an(More)
Pattern formation in 3D random media has been a topic of interest in soft matter and biological systems. However, the onset of long-range microscopic ordering has not been explored in randomly moving self-propelled particles due to a lack of model systems as well as local probe techniques. In this article, we report on a novel experiment, using motile(More)
Gene expression noise results in protein number distributions ranging from long-tailed to Gaussian. We show how long-tailed distributions arise from a stochastic model of the constituent chemical reactions and suggest that, in conjunction with cooperative switches, they lead to more sensitive selection of a subpopulation of cells with high protein number(More)
ATR controls chromosome integrity and chromatin dynamics. We have previously shown that yeast Mec1/ATR promotes chromatin detachment from the nuclear envelope to counteract aberrant topological transitions during DNA replication. Here, we provide evidence that ATR activity at the nuclear envelope responds to mechanical stress. Human ATR associates with the(More)
For cells to adapt to different tissues and changes in tissue mechanics, they must be able to respond to mechanical cues by changing their gene expression patterns. Biochemical signaling pathways for these responses have been elucidated, and recent evidence points to the involvement of force-induced deformation of the nucleus. However, it is still unclear(More)
The nucleus of a living cell is constantly undergoing changes in shape and size as a result of various mechanical forces in physiology. These changes correlate with alterations in gene expression, however it is unclear whether nuclear deformation alone is sufficient to elicit these alterations. We used T-cell activation as a model system to test the(More)
The capacity to produce therapeutically relevant quantities of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) via in vitro culture is a common prerequisite for stem cell-based therapies. Although culture expanded MSCs are widely studied and considered for therapeutic applications, it has remained challenging to identify a unique set of characteristics that(More)
Inspite of being embedded in a dense meshwork of nuclear chromatin, gene loci and large nuclear components are highly dynamic at 37°C. To understand this apparent unfettered movement in an overdense environment, we study the dynamics of a passive micron size bead in live cell nuclei at two different temperatures (25 and 37°C) with and without external(More)
Genomes are spatially assembled into chromosome territories (CT) within the nucleus of living cells. Recent evidences have suggested associations between three-dimensional organization of CTs and the active gene clusters within neighboring CTs. These gene clusters are part of signaling networks sharing similar transcription factor or other downstream(More)