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The paradigm for differential antigen expression in Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is the reciprocal expression of its outer surface (lipo)proteins (Osp) A and C; as B. burgdorferi transitions from its arthropod vector into mammalian tissue, ospC is upregulated, and ospA is downregulated. In the current study, using B. burgdorferi(More)
We previously reported on the existence of a family of lipoprotein genes, designated 2.9 lipoprotein genes, encoded in at least seven versions on the circular (supercoiled) cp32 and cp18 plasmids of Borrelia burgdorferi 297. A distinguishing feature of the 2.9 lipoproteins were highly similar signal sequences but variable mature polypeptides that segregated(More)
Schoeler, G. B., Manweiler, S. A., and Wikel, S. K. 1999. Ixodes scapularis: Effects of repeated infestations with pathogen-free nymphs on macrophage and T lymphocyte cytokine responses of BALB/c and C3H/HeN mice. Experimental Parasitology 92, 239-248. Ixodes scapularis is the principal vector in the United States of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative(More)
Relation of diel activity and questing behavior of nymphal Dermacentor occidentalis Marx and Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls to meteorological factors was investigated in a shaded versus a sun-exposed outdoor arena. Oak-woodland soil covered partially with leaf litter and small rocks, and 24 vertically oriented grass stems 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 cm tall(More)
Evidence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae was obtained from flea pools and individual ticks collected at three sites in northwestern Peru within the focus of an outbreak of febrile disease in humans attributed, in part, to SFG rickettsia infections. Molecular identification of the etiologic agents from these samples was determined after partial(More)
Malaria, both Plasmodium falciparum (Welch) and Plasmodium vivax (Grassi & Feletti), has reemerged as a significant public health disease issue in Peru, especially in forested areas in the eastern part of the country. The spread of Anopheles darlingi Root, the principal South American malaria vector, into new areas of Peru is thought to be a factor in this(More)
In the U.S.A., Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted to humans by the ticks Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus. Tick modulation of host immunity is an important factor in tick transmission of such pathogens. The proliferative responses of lymphocytes from BALB/c and C3H/HeN mice exposed to the salivary-gland soluble(More)
Lyme borreliosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis in the eastern and midwestern United States and by Ixodes pacificus in the far-Western United States. Studies have shown that infestation with I. scapularis nymphs modulates host cytokine production; however, the influence of I. pacificus infestation on host cytokines(More)
Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. japonicus (Theobald) are important container-inhabiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in the United States. Both species deposit eggs in natural and artificial containers and thrive in peridomestic environments. The goal of our study was to examine the(More)
In this study, we assessed the efficacy of the American Biophysics Corporation Standard Professional (ABC-PRO) light trap, the Omni-Directional Fay-Prince trap (with and without CO2), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wilton trap as a means of evaluating populations of adult Aedes aegypti in an urban area of northeastern Peru. Efficacies of(More)