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Many plant species exhibit a reduced range of flower colors due to the lack of an essential gene or to the substrate specificity of a biosynthetic enzyme. Petunia does not produce orange flowers because dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) from this species, an enzyme involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, inefficiently reduces dihydrokaempferol, the precursor(More)
Because plants are sessile, they have developed intricate strategies to adapt to changing environmental variables, including light. Their growth and development, from germination to flowering, is critically influenced by light, particularly at red (660 nm) and far-red (730 nm) wavelengths. Higher plants perceive red and far-red light by means of specific(More)
Diisocyanate is a leading cause of occupational asthma (OA). Diisocyanate-induced OA is an inflammatory disease of the airways that is associated with airway remodelling. Although the pathogenic mechanisms are unclear, oxidative stress may be related to the pathogenesis of diisocyanate-induced OA. In our previous report, we observed that the expression of(More)
BACKGROUND Robotic surgery was invented to overcome the demerits of laparoscopic technique. However, it is unclear whether robot-assisted colectomy (RAC) has significant clinical advantages over laparoscopically assisted colectomy (LAC) in treating colonic cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of RAC versus LAC for right-sided(More)
Some angiosperms are limited to a range of possible flower colors. This limitation can be due to the lack of an anthocyanin biosynthetic gene or to the substrate specificity of a key anthocyanin biosynthetic enzyme, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR). Cymbidium hybrida orchid flowers primarily produce cyanidin-type (pink to red) anthocyanins and lack the(More)
BACKGROUND Preservation or removal of the spleen during total gastrectomy for proximal gastric cancer is a matter of debate. METHODS A randomized clinical trial included patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent total gastrectomy either with (104 patients) or without (103) splenectomy. Postoperative outcome in the two groups was compared,(More)
BACKGROUND This case-control study compared the clinical outcomes of totally laparoscopic hemicolectomy with natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) and the conventional laparoscopically assisted approach for right-sided colonic cancer. METHODS Consecutive patients who underwent totally laparoscopic mobilization of the right colon with transvaginal(More)
BACKGROUND Although methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is widely used in many industries, there have been few immunological studies of MDI-induced occupational asthma. OBJECTIVES We investigated the effects of MDI exposure on the clinical and immunologic condition of workers in a single car upholstery factory. METHODS Fifty-eight MDI-exposed workers(More)
OBJECTIVE Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied in regenerative medicine because of their unique immunologic characteristics. However, before clinical application in humans, animal models are needed to confirm their safety and efficacy. To date, appropriate methods and sources to obtain mouse MSCs have not been identified. Therefore, we(More)
Delta(5)-3-Ketosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas putida biotype B is one of the most proficient enzymes catalyzing an allylic isomerization reaction at rates comparable to the diffusion limit. The hydrogen-bond network (Asp99... Wat504...Tyr14...Tyr55...Tyr30) which links the two catalytic residues, Tyr14 and Asp99, to Tyr30, Tyr55, and a water molecule in(More)