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We use a three-dimensional climate model, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model II with 8 ø by 10 ø horizontal resolution, to simulate the global climate effects of time-dependent variations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Horizontal heat transport by the ocean is fixed at values estimated for today's climate, and the uptake of heat(More)
The global temperature rose by 0.2 degrees C between the middle 1960's and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4 degrees C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary(More)
The factors that determine climate response times were investigated with simple models and scaling statements. The response times are particularly sensitive to (i) the amount that the climate response is amplified by feedbacks and (ii) the representation of ocean mixing. If equilibrium climate sensitivity is 3 degrees C or greater for a doubling of the(More)
We examine the seasonal cycle of near-surface air temperature simulated by 17 coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). Nine of the models use ad hoc``¯ux adjustment'' at the ocean surface to bring model simulations close to observations of the present-day climate. We group(More)
  • Steinmeyer, G Sutter, +12 authors A Wieman
  • 2005
The Harvard community has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. running and when the locking loop is closed. The closed-loop frequency fluctuations exhibit a root-mean-square (r.m.s.) frequency deviation of ,310 kHz over a 1-min integration time. The residual noise exhibits a white noise spectrum(More)
The salinity tolerances of Baltic and Atlantic populations ofFucus vesiculosus andChorda filum have been measured using net photosynthesis as an index of tissue damage. AtlanticFucus proved to have a broader salinity tolerance than AtlanticChorda, a result which is consistent with others published on the tolerances of intertidal and sublittoral marine(More)
Unchanged and negatively and positively charged liposomes of egg lecithin were prepared by sonication and chromatographed on three different gel media. The column effluent was investigated by turbidimetric measurements. The operational parameters were selected to obtain baseline separation of the liposomes. Liposome peaks were fractionated and identified by(More)
The month-to-month variability of tropical temperatures is larger in the troposphere than at Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations and is consistent with basic theory. On multidecadal time scales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations,(More)
Intertidal algae experience aerial temperatures as well as those of ambient seawater and, during their periods of emergence, are subject to considerable variation in salinity. The eastern Atlantic distribution ofFucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyta) lies within the 5° and 20° August isotherms. Experiments indicate that this plant can survive temperatures above(More)