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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize brain areas that were active during the observation of actions made by another individual. Object- and non-object-related actions made with different effectors (mouth, hand and foot) were presented. Observation of both object- and non-object-related actions determined a somatotopically(More)
We recorded electrical activity from 532 neurons in the rostral part of inferior area 6 (area F5) of two macaque monkeys. Previous data had shown that neurons of this area discharge during goal-directed hand and mouth movements. We describe here the properties of a newly discovered set of F5 neurons ("mirror neurons', n = 92) all of which became active both(More)
Two series of experiments are reported in this paper. The first concerns the movement representation in the macaque inferior area 6, the second the functional properties of neurons located in the caudal part of this area (histochemical area F4). By combining single neuron recording and intracortical microstimulation, we found that inferior area 6 is(More)
the article, when we discuss imitation and understanding of meaning. What are the neural mechanisms that underlie action understanding? By action understanding, we mean the capacity to achieve the internal description of an action and to use it to organize appropriate future behaviour. Broadly speaking, there are two hypotheses that might explain how action(More)
In area F5 of the monkey premotor cortex there are neurons that discharge both when the monkey performs an action and when he observes a similar action made by another monkey or by the experimenter. We report here some of the properties of these 'mirror' neurons and we propose that their activity 'represents' the observed action. We posit, then, that this(More)
In monkeys, the rostral part of ventral premotor cortex (area F5) contains neurons that discharge, both when the monkey grasps or manipulates objects and when it observes the experimenter making similar actions. These neurons (mirror neurons) appear to represent a system that matches observed events to similar, internally generated actions, and in this way(More)
1. We stimulated the motor cortex of normal subjects (transcranial magnetic stimulation) while they 1) observed an experimenter grasping 3D-objects, 2) looked at the same 3D-objects, 3) observed an experimenter tracing geometrical figures in the air with his arm, and 4) detected the dimming of a light. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from hand(More)
Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to localize brain regions that are active during the observation of grasping movements. Normal, right-handed subjects were tested under three conditions. In the first, they observed grasping movements of common objects performed by the experimenter. In the second, they reached and grasped the same objects. These(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize brain areas active during manipulation of complex objects. In one experiment subjects were required to manipulate complex objects for exploring their macrogeometric features as compared to manipulation of a simple smooth object (a sphere). In a second experiment subjects were asked to(More)
The monkey mesial area 6 comprises two distinct cytoarchitectonic areas: F3 [supplementary motor area properly defined (SMA-proper)], located caudally, and F6 (pre-SMA), located rostrally. The aim of the present study was to describe the corticocortical connections of these two areas. To this purpose restricted injections of neuronal tracers (wheat(More)