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BACKGROUND Measurements of the T2 decay curve provide estimates of total water content and myelin water fraction in white matter in-vivo, which may help in understanding the pathological progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS Thirty-three MS patients (24 relapsing remitting, 8 secondary progressive, 1 primary progressive) and 18 controls(More)
The ability to measure myelin in vivo has great consequences for furthering our knowledge of normal development, as well as for understanding a wide range of neurological disorders. The following review summarizes the current state of myelin imaging using MR. We consider five MR techniques that have been used to study myelin: 1) conventional MR, 2) MR(More)
Various magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are used to study the pathological evolution of demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, few studies have validated MR derived measurements with histopathology. Here, we determine the correlation of myelin water imaging, an MR measure of myelin content, with quantitative histopathologic(More)
Myelin water imaging (MWI) promises to be invaluable in understanding neurological diseases like MS. However, a limitation of MWI is signal to noise ratio. Recently, a number of investigators have performed MWI at field strengths higher than 1.5 T. Our goal was to determine if myelin water imaging at increased SNR, arising from the use of a small bore 7 T(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the pathologic basis of areas not exhibiting signal of the short-T2 component of the T2 relaxation distribution in MS, as studied in formalin-fixed brain. BACKGROUND A myelin-specific MRI signal would be of great importance in assessing demyelination in patients with MS. Evidence indicates that the short-T2 (10 to 50 millisecond)(More)
Evidence has shown that excitotoxicity may contribute to the loss of central nervous system axons and oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Because dendrites and synapses are vulnerable to excitotoxicity, we examined these structures in acute and chronic models of EAE. Immunostaining for(More)
Central nervous system (CNS) tissue was studied by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy from three cases of multiple sclerosis (MS) in which evidence of ongoing myelin breakdown could be documented. The study focussed upon the role of glial cells in the pathogenesis of demyelination. In acute MS, demyelination involved the vesicular dissolution of(More)
This article provides an overview of relaxation times and their application to normal brain and brain and cord affected by multiple sclerosis. The goal is to provide readers with an intuitive understanding of what influences relaxation times, how relaxation times can be accurately measured, and how they provide specific information about the pathology of(More)
We have used the CPMG pulse sequence to measure proton T2 values and water content in spinal cord and brain samples from Hartley guinea pigs inoculated to produce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Relaxation data were fitted using minuit, a non-linear curve fitting routine. Three exponentials provided the best fit to spinal cord data (10 ms(More)
Multi-echo T(2) measurements are invaluable in studying brain pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition to information about myelin water and total water content, the T(2) distribution has the potential to detect additional water reservoirs arising from other sources such as inflammation or edema. The purpose of this study was to better define the(More)