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Combined analysis of helium (584 angstroms) airglow and the atmospheric occultations of the star delta Scorpii imply a vertical mixing parameter in Saturn's upper atmosphere of K (eddy diffusion coefficient) approximately 8 x 10(7) square centimeters per second, an order of magnitude more vigorous than mixing in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Atmospheric H(2)(More)
Plants engage in diverse and intimate interactions with unrelated taxa. For example, aboveground floral visitors provide pollination services, while belowground arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance nutrient capture. Traditionally in ecology, these processes were studied in isolation, reinforcing the prevailing assumption that these above- and(More)
Results from the occultation of the sun by Neptune imply a temperature of 750 +/- 150 kelvins in the upper levels of the atmosphere (composed mostly of atomic and molecular hydrogen) and define the distributions of methane, acetylene, and ethane at lower levels. The ultraviolet spectrum of the sunlit atmosphere of Neptune resembles the spectra of the(More)
Data from solar and stellar occultations of Uranus indicate a temperature of about 750 kelvins in the upper levels of the atmosphere (composed mostly of atomic and molecular hydrogen) and define the distributions of methane and acetylene in the lower levels. The ultraviolet spectrum of the sunlit hemisphere is dominated by emissions from atomic and(More)
The global hydrogen Lyman alpha, helium (584 angstroms), and molecular hydrogen band emissions from Saturn are qualitatively similar to those of Jupiter, but the Saturn observations emphasize that the H(2) band excitation mechanism is closely related to the solar flux. Auroras occur near 80 degrees latitude, suggesting Earth-like magnetotail activity, quite(More)
Infrared laser induced dielectric breakdown and multiphoton absorption experiments on CH4/NH3 'atmospheres' are described. It is found that HCN, a central intermediate in prebiotic chemistry, is a principle product. This, combined with the fact that dielectric breakdown appears to have much in common with ordinary electric sparks, suggests that the laser(More)
The mass-specific metabolic rate hypothesis of Gillooly and others predicts that DNA mutation and substitution rates are a function of body mass and temperature. We tested this hypothesis with sequence divergences estimated from mtDNA cytochrome b sequences of 54 taxa of cyprinid fish. Branch lengths estimated from a likelihood tree were compared with(More)
The gaseouis plume from an isolated 1000-megawatt power plant was systematically examined from a single engine aircraft to determine the extent to which NO(x) and SO(2), chemistry occurs as a function of distance. The concentrations of ambient ozone, water vapor, and hydroxyl free radicals are indicated to be of major importance in defining the chemistry of(More)