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An algorithm based on the physics of radiative transfer in vegetation canopies for the retrieval of vegetation green leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) from surface reflectances was developed and implemented for operational processing prior to the launch of the moderate resolution imaging(More)
Combined analysis of helium (584 angstroms) airglow and the atmospheric occultations of the star delta Scorpii imply a vertical mixing parameter in Saturn's upper atmosphere of K (eddy diffusion coefficient) approximately 8 x 10(7) square centimeters per second, an order of magnitude more vigorous than mixing in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Atmospheric H(2)(More)
Plants engage in diverse and intimate interactions with unrelated taxa. For example, aboveground floral visitors provide pollination services, while belowground arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance nutrient capture. Traditionally in ecology, these processes were studied in isolation, reinforcing the prevailing assumption that these above- and(More)
This paper presents the analysis of radiative transfer assumptions underlying moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) algorithm for the case of spatially heterogeneous broadleaf forests. Data collected by a Boston University research group during the July 2000(More)
Results from the occultation of the sun by Neptune imply a temperature of 750 +/- 150 kelvins in the upper levels of the atmosphere (composed mostly of atomic and molecular hydrogen) and define the distributions of methane, acetylene, and ethane at lower levels. The ultraviolet spectrum of the sunlit atmosphere of Neptune resembles the spectra of the(More)
Data from solar and stellar occultations of Uranus indicate a temperature of about 750 kelvins in the upper levels of the atmosphere (composed mostly of atomic and molecular hydrogen) and define the distributions of methane and acetylene in the lower levels. The ultraviolet spectrum of the sunlit hemisphere is dominated by emissions from atomic and(More)
Exonuclease I (Exo I) from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a 5'-->3' double-stranded DNA exonuclease, is induced during meiotic prophase I. The exo1 gene is a member of a family of related DNA repair genes, including RAD2/rad13/xpgc and YKL510/rad2, conserved from yeast to humans. An exo1 mutant displays a mutator phenotype and alters activity of the ade6-M387(More)
The global hydrogen Lyman alpha, helium (584 angstroms), and molecular hydrogen band emissions from Saturn are qualitatively similar to those of Jupiter, but the Saturn observations emphasize that the H(2) band excitation mechanism is closely related to the solar flux. Auroras occur near 80 degrees latitude, suggesting Earth-like magnetotail activity, quite(More)
The mass-specific metabolic rate hypothesis of Gillooly and others predicts that DNA mutation and substitution rates are a function of body mass and temperature. We tested this hypothesis with sequence divergences estimated from mtDNA cytochrome b sequences of 54 taxa of cyprinid fish. Branch lengths estimated from a likelihood tree were compared with(More)