G. Nicholas Llewellyn

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T cells adopt a polarized morphology in lymphoid organs, where cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is likely frequent. However, despite the importance of understanding virus spread in vivo, little is known about the HIV-1 life cycle, particularly its late phase, in polarized T cells. Polarized T cells form two ends, the leading edge at the front and a(More)
Tetherin/BST-2 (here called tetherin) is an antiviral protein that restricts release of diverse enveloped viruses from infected cells through physically tethering virus envelope and host plasma membrane. For HIV-1, specific recruitment of tetherin to assembly sites has been observed as its colocalization with the viral structural protein Gag or its(More)
Genome editing with targeted nucleases and DNA donor templates homologous to the break site has proven challenging in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and particularly in the most primitive, long-term repopulating cell population. Here we report that combining electroporation of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) mRNA with donor template(More)
This study is the first to demonstrate that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an immune system 'inflammatory' cytokine that is released by the developing otocyst, plays a role in regulating early innervation of the mouse and chick inner ear. We demonstrate that MIF is a major bioactive component of the previously uncharacterized otocyst-derived(More)
HIV-1 particle assembly is driven by the structural protein Gag. Gag binds to and multimerizes on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, eventually resulting in formation of spherical particles. During virus spread among T cells, Gag accumulates to the plasma membrane domain that, together with target cell membrane, forms a cell junction known as the(More)
In polarized T cells, HIV-1 Gag localizes to a rear-end protrusion known as the uropod in a multimerization-dependent manner. Gag-laden uropods participate in formation of virological synapses, intercellular contact structures that play a key role in cell-to-cell HIV-1 transmission. Our previous observations suggest that Gag associates with uropod-directed(More)
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