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BACKGROUND Suicide is a major public health concern. Although authors of many studies have examined the neurobiological aspects of suicide, the molecular mechanisms associated with suicidal behavior remain unclear. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the most important neurotrophins, after binding with and activating receptor tyrosine kinase B(More)
Postmortem prefrontal cortices (PFC) (Brodmann's areas 10 and 46), temporal cortices (Brodmann's area 22), hippocampi, caudate nuclei, and cerebella of schizophrenia patients and their matched nonpsychiatric subjects were compared for reelin (RELN) mRNA and reelin (RELN) protein content. In all of the brain areas studied, RELN and its mRNA were(More)
Earlier studies have implicated brain-derived neurotrophic factor in stress and in the mechanism of action of antidepressants. It has been shown that antidepressants upregulate, whereas corticosterone downregulates, brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in rat brain. Whether various classes of antidepressants reverse corticosterone-mediated(More)
The extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and ERK2 are members of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family that play an important role in transducing extracellular signals to the nucleus and have been implicated in a broad spectrum of biological responses. To test the hypothesis that MAP kinases may be involved in depression, we examined the(More)
The Raf kinases Raf-1 and B-Raf are upstream activators of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-signaling pathway and therefore participates in many physiological functions in brain, including neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. Previously, we observed that activation of ERK-1/2, the downstream component of ERK signaling, is significantly(More)
BACKGROUND Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of a neurotrophin family and is involved in many physiological functions, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, and neuron survival in the human nervous system. Abnormalities of BDNF have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression based on observations that(More)
Mood disorders are among the most prevalent and recurrent forms of psychiatric illnesses. In the last decade, there has been increased understanding of the biological basis of mood disorders. In fact, novel mechanistic concepts of the neurobiology of unipolar and bipolar disorders are evolving based on recent pre-clinical and clinical studies, most of which(More)
BACKGROUND Teenage suicide is a major public health concern. Although there is some understanding of the psychosocial factors associated with teenage suicide, little is known about the neurobiologic factors of teenage suicide. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a critical phosphorylating enzyme in the phosphoinositide signaling pathway (which is involved in many(More)
One of the major disasters occurring in the world is flooding. To monitor the water conditions such as water level, flow and precipitation level, wireless sensor network system architecture for real time monitoring has been developed and presented in this paper The objective of this system is to send real time information of flooding to the regulatory and(More)
Phosphoinositide 3 (PI 3)-kinase is one of the key signaling enzymes that participates in a myriad of physiological functions in brain and is utilized by neurotrophins to mediate neuronal plasticity, cell survival, and inhibition of apoptosis for several neuronal subtypes. Our recent demonstration that expression of neurotrophic factors and activation of(More)