G Miller Jonakait

Learn More
OBJECTIVE Neocortical neurons are sensitive to hypoxic-ischemic (H-I) injuries at term and their demise contributes to neurological disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that the subventricular zone of the immature brain regenerates neocortical neurons, and that this response is sustained. METHODS Systemic injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)(More)
Microglia are essential for T cell activation in the CNS. Since T cell activation requires costimulation by B7 and/or CD40, we examined the regulation by cytokines of B7-1, B7-2 and CD40 mRNA expression in cultured rat microglia in serum-free medium. All three ligands are expressed constitutively, but are profoundly up-regulated by granulocyte-macrophage(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) induces substance P (SP) gene expression in cultured rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) explants. In order to study the molecular mechanism of this action of IL-1, the presence of an interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) activity and the identity of an mRNA homologous to known IL-1R sequence was determined in SCG. The SP increase is blocked(More)
Microglia react to even minor disturbances in CNS homeostasis and function as critical regulators of CNS inflammation. Activated microglia secrete inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to the pathophysiological changes associated with several neuroimmunologic disorders. Microglia-derived inflammatory chemokines recruit(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production accompanies CNS insults of all kinds. Because the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the structurally related peptide pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have potent anti-inflammatory effects in the periphery, we investigated whether these effects extend to the CNS.(More)
The neuropeptide galanin (GAL) is up-regulated following neuronal axotomy or inflammation. Since other neuropeptides act as immunomodulatory agents, we sought to determine whether GAL might affect the murine microglial cell line BV2, which expresses the GAL2 receptor. Even at very low concentrations, GAL inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha)(More)
We investigated the effects of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in cultured cholinergic precursors from the embryonic rat septal nuclei and basal forebrain. Carboxy-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence confirmed that 2-ME inhibited intracellular oxidation. Low micromolar(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission was altered to determine its role in regulating the biosynthesis of tachykinins in the neostriatum (NS). Depletion of 5-HT with subchronic p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) treatment decreased preprotachykinin (PPT, the prohormone precursor to SP) mRNA levels in the NS. By contrast, raising extracellular 5-HT levels with(More)
That maternal inflammation adversely affects fetal brain development is well established. Less well understood are the mechanisms that account for neurodevelopmental disorders arising from maternal inflammation. This review seeks to begin an examination of possible sites and mechanisms of action whereby inflammatory cytokines - produced by the mother or by(More)
We have investigated the effects of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on the induction of substance P (SP) in cultured sympathetic ganglia. Northern blot analysis reveals that SP increases are secondary to an increase in mRNA coding for the preprotachykinin (PPT) precursor of SP. Nuclear transcription assays detect an early increase in PPT-specific nascent(More)