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OBJECTIVE Neocortical neurons are sensitive to hypoxic-ischemic (H-I) injuries at term and their demise contributes to neurological disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that the subventricular zone of the immature brain regenerates neocortical neurons, and that this response is sustained. METHODS Systemic injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)(More)
Microglia are essential for T cell activation in the CNS. Since T cell activation requires costimulation by B7 and/or CD40, we examined the regulation by cytokines of B7-1, B7-2 and CD40 mRNA expression in cultured rat microglia in serum-free medium. All three ligands are expressed constitutively, but are profoundly up-regulated by granulocyte-macrophage(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission was altered to determine its role in regulating the biosynthesis of tachykinins in the neostriatum (NS). Depletion of 5-HT with subchronic p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) treatment decreased preprotachykinin (PPT, the prohormone precursor to SP) mRNA levels in the NS. By contrast, raising extracellular 5-HT levels with(More)
We describe the transient expression of catecholaminergic traits in cranial sensory and dorsal root ganglia of the embryonic rat in vivo. Isolated cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (T-OH) immunoreactivity were initially detected in trigeminal (V) ganglion anlages as early as gestational Day 10.5 (E10.5; 18-22 somites). Neurofilament (NF) protein was(More)
That maternal inflammation adversely affects fetal brain development is well established. Less well understood are the mechanisms that account for neurodevelopmental disorders arising from maternal inflammation. This review seeks to begin an examination of possible sites and mechanisms of action whereby inflammatory cytokines - produced by the mother or by(More)
We have examined the effect of the trophic protein, nerve growth factor (NGF), on organotypic cultures of fetal rat striatum. Treatment of cultures with NGF for 10-11 days resulted in a 5- to 12-fold increase in the specific activity of the cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (CAT; EC 2.3.1.6). in a dose-dependent fashion. This effect was not(More)
Conditioned medium from stimulated microglia and from the monocyte/macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7; MC-CM) promotes the differentiation of cholinergic neurons from undifferentiated progenitors in the septal nuclei and adjacent basal forebrain (BF). We have studied the regulation of this process by measuring the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production accompanies CNS insults of all kinds. Because the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the structurally related peptide pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have potent anti-inflammatory effects in the periphery, we investigated whether these effects extend to the CNS.(More)
BACKGROUND Perinatal exposure to infectious agents with associated maternal immune activation (MIA) leads to neuroanatomical and behavioral dysregulation reminiscent of autism spectrum disorders. Persistent microglial activation as well as increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in the basal forebrain (BF) are characteristic of autistic(More)
We have previously used organotypic cultures to study mechanisms regulating phenotypic expression of neurotransmitter characters in the brain. Our previous work indicated that nerve growth factor (NGF) specifically increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase (CAT) in striatal cholinergic interneurons. In the present study we examined the effect of(More)