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OBJECTIVES To undertake a systematic review of the effectiveness and costs of different guideline development, dissemination and implementation strategies. To estimate the resource implications of these strategies. To develop a framework for deciding when it is efficient to develop and introduce clinical guidelines. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, Healthstar,(More)
BACKGROUND Elderly people who have a fracture are at high risk of another. Vitamin D and calcium supplements are often recommended for fracture prevention. We aimed to assess whether vitamin D3 and calcium, either alone or in combination, were effective in prevention of secondary fractures. METHODS In a factorial-design trial, 5292 people aged 70 years or(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy and safety of mesh/graft in surgery for anterior or posterior pelvic organ prolapse is uncertain. OBJECTIVES To systematically review the efficacy and safety of mesh/graft for anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse surgery. SEARCH STRATEGY Electronic databases and conference proceedings were searched, experts and(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost utility of procedures alternative to TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate) for benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) unresponsive to expectant, non-surgical treatments. DATA SOURCES Electronic searches of 13 databases to identify relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). REVIEW(More)
The fissure-sealing of newly erupted molars is an effective caries prevention treatment, but remains underutilized. Two plausible reasons are the financial disincentive produced by the dental remuneration system, and dentists' lack of awareness of evidence-based practice. The primary hypothesis was that implementation strategies based on remuneration or(More)
BACKGROUND Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a major preventable cause of harm for patients in hospital and incurs significant costs for health-care providers such as the UK NHS. Many preventative strategies and measures have been introduced to minimise CAUTI risk, including the use of antimicrobial catheters. However, there is(More)
BACKGROUND Following primary breast cancer treatment, the early detection of ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence (IBTR) or ipsilateral secondary cancer in the treated breast and detection of new primary cancers in the contralateral breast is beneficial for survival. Surveillance mammography is used to detect these cancers, but the optimal frequency of(More)
AIM To compare the diagnostic performance of accredited glaucoma optometrists (AGO) for both the diagnosis of glaucoma and the decision to treat with that of routine hospital eye care, against a reference standard of expert opinion (a consultant ophthalmologist with a special interest in glaucoma). METHODS A directly comparative, masked, performance study(More)
There is conflicting evidence about the merits of mobile bearings in total knee replacement, partly because most randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have not been adequately powered. We report the results of a multicentre RCT of mobile versus fixed bearings. This was part of the knee arthroplasty trial (KAT), where 539 patients were randomly allocated to(More)
Objective To investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different guideline implementation strategies, using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Guideline 42 'Management of unerupted and impacted third molar teeth' (published 2000) as a model.Design A pragmatic, cluster RCT (2×2 factorial design).Subjects Sixty-three dental(More)