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In patients who were treated with exogenous BMP-2 to repair bone fractures or defects, the levels of the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β in sera are significantly elevated, which may affect the outcome of bone regeneration. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, and(More)
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