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Tamoxifen (TAM) has been shown to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. bcl-2 family genes, which can interact with each other, have been shown to interfere with apoptosis after various stimuli. In this study, we investigated the effects of TAM on bcl-2 family gene products bcl-2, bax, and bcl-X(L) and on p53 levels in estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7(More)
Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-2 and IL-6 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay in 46 Japanese patients with metastatic breast cancer. No IL-2 activity was detectable, only two patients had a detectable TNF-alpha level, and 4 had detectable(More)
The proto-oncogene bcl-2, which is implicated in the regulation of cell death by inhibiting apoptosis, is reported to be expressed in breast tissues. The wild-type p53 has been shown to induce apoptosis, which can be inhibited by bcl-2 expression. However, the role of bcl-2 and p53 expression in breast carcinogenesis has not been clarified. The purpose of(More)
BACKGROUND Although the prevalence of allergic asthma increased quickly in the past decade, the diagnostic criteria have not been well established. The aim of the present study was to explore whether stem cell factor (SCF), B cell-activating factor (BAFF), and cytokines interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-31 are usable parameters for the diagnosis of allergic(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES p27kip1 (p27) plays an important role as a negative regulator of cell cycle-dependent kinase activity during progression of the cell cycle. The most important prognosticator of breast cancer is nodal status, and the aim of this study was to determine the prognostic implication of p27 in breast cancer patients with lymph node(More)
Apoptosis is considered to play a critical role in tumorigenesis. In order to clarify the significance of apoptosis in breast cancers, we quantitated apoptotic cells by light microscopy in 126 patients with invasive breast cancers. The expression of bcl-2, and p53, as regulators of apoptosis, was immunohistochemically analyzed. Apoptotic index (AI) detected(More)
Patients with primary breast carcinoma with one to three axillary lymph node metastases but without distant metastases (n1-3) in Japan have been shown to have a 10-year disease-free survival rate of > 60%. It would be reasonable to divide n1-3 Japanese breast cancer patients into groups with high- or low-risk for recurrence and to consider post-operative(More)
The proto-oncogene bcl-2 is demonstrated to block a final common pathway leading to apoptosis and is expressed in more than half of human breast cancers. Invasive breast cancer has reduced bcl-2 immunostaining compared with normal breast epithelia and preinvasive breast lesions. As an inhibitor of apoptosis, bcl-2 should correlate with highly aggressive(More)
Cellular adhesion molecules have been demonstrated to play an important role in the progression and metastasis of malignancies. We determined the serum concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin (sE-selectin) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 49 Japanese patients with metastatic breast cancer. Significantly(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population including myeloid progenitor and immature myeloid cells, are known to inhibit T cell responses. The issue of whether tumour-derived MDSCs regulate the immune response in an asthma environment is currently unclear. Here, we have reported that tumour-derived MDSCs shift the balance back to(More)