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On epidemiological evidence, the definition of recurrent miscarriage should be three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. Data should be collected to 28 weeks' gestation but analysis up to 20-22 weeks' or 500 g fetal weight should also be possible. General practitioners and gynaecologists should do what they feel is suitable for couples whose history does(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects on fetal and maternal morbidity of routine active management of third stage of labour and expectant (physiological) management, in particular to determine whether active management reduced incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. DESIGN Randomised trial of active versus physiological management. Women entered trial on(More)
Firm evidence on the causes of recurrent miscarriage is scant. The true rate is probably artificially heightened by a reproductive compensation effect. The commonest direct cause is probably repeated sporadic chromosome abnormalities, which occur consecutively merely by chance. Congenital and acquired anatomical defects of the uterine fundus and cervix,(More)
Species-specific circulating antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis were found in 75% of 48 infertile women with damaged fallopian tubes, 47.5% of 40 parous women seeking sterilisation, 46% of 63 women seeking termination of pregnancy, 31% of 75 infertile women with normal fallopian tubes, and 24% of 72 women using barrier contraception. High titres of(More)
The Wilms' tumour is a solid childhood tumour of the kidney, consisting of blastema, tubules and mesenchyme. Embryonic tumours, such as Wilms', may arise as a result of a developmental disturbance in differentiation. The expression of class I and II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens was investigated on 6 Wilms' tumours and related to that in(More)
Raised levels (greater than or equal to 4.5 munits/ml) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in amniotic fluid at 14--23 weeks of pregnancy were significantly associated with open fetal neural-tube defects. Out of 72 pregnancies correctly classified by the amniotic-fluid alpha-fetoprotein (A.F.P.) test, 2 of 56 without neural-tube defects and all 16 with(More)
In light of advances in neonatal medicine which have dramatically increased survival chances of premature infants, the authors call for revision of Britain's Infant Life Preservation Act of 1929, which established the limit of viability at 28 weeks' gestation. Concerned that potentially viable infants may not receive proper care or that such births may go(More)
In 50 women with high-risk pregnancies, increased factor-VII consumption, as estimated by the difference between the levels of factor-VIII-related antigen and factor-VIII clotting activity, correlated with the severity of pre-eclampsia, particularly when measured by increases in plasma-urate. Longitudinal studies of the evolution of pre-eclampsia(More)