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Microglia are essential for T cell activation in the CNS. Since T cell activation requires costimulation by B7 and/or CD40, we examined the regulation by cytokines of B7-1, B7-2 and CD40 mRNA expression in cultured rat microglia in serum-free medium. All three ligands are expressed constitutively, but are profoundly up-regulated by granulocyte-macrophage(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission was altered to determine its role in regulating the biosynthesis of tachykinins in the neostriatum (NS). Depletion of 5-HT with subchronic p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) treatment decreased preprotachykinin (PPT, the prohormone precursor to SP) mRNA levels in the NS. By contrast, raising extracellular 5-HT levels with(More)
We describe the transient expression of catecholaminergic traits in cranial sensory and dorsal root ganglia of the embryonic rat in vivo. Isolated cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (T-OH) immunoreactivity were initially detected in trigeminal (V) ganglion anlages as early as gestational Day 10.5 (E10.5; 18-22 somites). Neurofilament (NF) protein was(More)
Conditioned medium from stimulated microglia and from the monocyte/macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7; MC-CM) promotes the differentiation of cholinergic neurons from undifferentiated progenitors in the septal nuclei and adjacent basal forebrain (BF). We have studied the regulation of this process by measuring the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)(More)
We have examined the effect of the trophic protein, nerve growth factor (NGF), on organotypic cultures of fetal rat striatum. Treatment of cultures with NGF for 10-11 days resulted in a 5- to 12-fold increase in the specific activity of the cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (CAT; EC in a dose-dependent fashion. This effect was not(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production accompanies CNS insults of all kinds. Because the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the structurally related peptide pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have potent anti-inflammatory effects in the periphery, we investigated whether these effects extend to the CNS.(More)
We have previously used organotypic cultures to study mechanisms regulating phenotypic expression of neurotransmitter characters in the brain. Our previous work indicated that nerve growth factor (NGF) specifically increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase (CAT) in striatal cholinergic interneurons. In the present study we examined the effect of(More)
We investigated the effects of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in cultured cholinergic precursors from the embryonic rat septal nuclei and basal forebrain. Carboxy-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence confirmed that 2-ME inhibited intracellular oxidation. Low micromolar(More)
Substance P (SP) and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) are co-localized with serotonin (5-HT) in cells of the medullary raphe nuclei. In order to examine the factors that control development of multiple neurotransmitters within individual brain nuclei, we have grown presumptive raphe nuclei in organotypic tissue culture, an environment in which mammalian(More)