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The field of small interfering RNA (siRNA) as potent sequence-selective inhibitors of transcription is rapidly developing. However, until now, low transfection efficiency, poor tissue penetration, and nonspecific immune stimulation by in vivo administered siRNAs have delayed their therapeutic application. Their potential as anticancer therapeutics hinges on(More)
Multinuclear (31P, 13C, 2H, and 1H) Fourier-transform NMR spectroscopy, with and without isotopically enriched materials, was used to identify and quantify, as a function of time, the following intermediary (short-lived) metabolites of the anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (1, Scheme I): cis-4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (cis-2), its trans isomer (trans-2),(More)
BACKGROUND Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides ([S]ODNs) contain a modified internucleoside phosphate backbone. Antisense [S]ODNs targeted to specific oncogenes have been used with some therapeutic success in animal models human leukemia; however, the potential for antisense [S]ODN treatment of solid tumors has only recently been explored. PURPOSE We(More)
Department of Chemistry and Center for Nucleic Acids Science and Technology, Carnegie Mellon UniVersity, 4400 Fifth AVenue, Pittsburgh, PennsylVania 15213, Eye and Ear Institute, UniVersity of Pittsburgh, 203 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PennsylVania 15261, Department of Otolaryngology, UniVersity of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PennsylVania(More)
The c-myb protooncogene encodes proteins that are critical for hematopoietic cell proliferation and development. Disrupting c-myb function might, therefore, prove an effective therapeutic strategy for controlling leukemic cell growth. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides have been utilized for this purpose in vitro, but their in vivo efficacy has not been(More)
The BCR/ABL oncogenic tyrosine kinase is responsible for initiating and maintaining the leukemic phenotype of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1)-positive cells. Phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase is known to interact with and be activated by receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. We investigated whether PI-3 kinase associates with and/or is regulated by(More)
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent tumor of HIV-1-infected individuals (AIDS-KS). Typical features of KS are proliferating spindle-shaped cells, considered to be the tumor cells of KS, and endothelial cells forming blood vessels. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent angiogenic factor, is highly expressed by KS spindle cells in vivo and(More)
Nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate analogs of certain oligodeoxynucleotides have been tested in vitro as antiviral agents against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in human T cells. Phosphorothioate analogs complementary to HIV sequences, as well as noncomplementary analogs including homooligomers, exhibited potent antiviral activity. The antiviral(More)
The intracellular transport and fate of nucleic acids is poorly understood. To study this process, we injected fluorescent oligodeoxyribonucleotides (oligos) into the cytoplasm of CV-1 epithelial cells and primary human fibroblasts. Rapid nuclear accumulation was found with the phosphodiester (PD), phosphorothioate (PT), and methylphosphonate (MP) forms of(More)
A phosphorothioate oligonucleotide that has been employed to inhibit HIV-1 viral expression in chronically infected H9 cells was examined for cellular uptake and subcellular distribution. The relationship between extracellular oligonucleotide concentration and the distribution and accumulation into subcellular organelles is important to the design,(More)