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Glutamate is the most widespread excitatory transmitter in the CNS and is probably involved in LTP, a neural phenomenon which may be associated with learning and memory formation. Intracerebral injection of large amounts of glutamate between 5 min and 2.5 min after passive avoidance learning in young chicks inhibits short-term memory, which occurs between 0(More)
During two specific stages of the Gibbs-Ng model of one-trial aversive learning in the neonate chick, we have recently found unequivocal evidence for a crucial involvement of astrocytes. This evidence is metabolic (utilization of the astrocyte-specific energy store, glycogen, during normal learning and inhibition of memory formation by the astrocyte(More)
Methionine sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of the exclusively glial enzyme glutamine synthetase, was shown, at a concentration of 3.5-4.5 mM, to prevent consolidation of memory for a passive avoidance task in day-old chicks. Provided the drug was administered 5-20 min before the learning task, significant retention loss was observed from the normal time(More)
While there is considerable evidence that protein kinase activity is involved in memory formation, there has been, as yet, no direct investigation of a role for protein phosphatases. However, phosphatases have been implicated in the effects of the activation of glutamate receptors of the NMDA type, in long-term depression, and in the regulation of(More)
There is substantial evidence that protein kinases, through the phosphorylation of substrate proteins, play a significant role in information processing in the brain, including processes underlying memory formation. Inhibition of the activity of the cyclic-adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase A by the highly specific inhibitor, halofantrine,(More)
Day-old chicks trained in a single trial passive avoidance task develop three sequentially dependent stages of discrimination memory. The second intermediate stage is made up of two phases: the initial A phase being susceptible to inhibition of oxidative metabolism in the tricarboxcylic acid (TCA) system with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), and a second(More)
Changes in the activity of the enzyme protein kinase C (PKC) have been implicated in learning and memory consolidation, and in the induction of long-term potentiation. The precise role of PKC in memory processing is still unknown. Using 1-day-old chicks trained on a single-trial passive avoidance task, we demonstrate that inhibition of PKC activity by(More)
The concentration of K+ [( K+]) was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in the extracellular fluid [( K+]e) in the medial forebrain of two-day-old chicks by means of K(+)-sensitive microelectrodes (K-ISM). The K-ISM potential in the CSF was compared with that in artificial CSF with 3, 4 or 6 mmol/l of [K+]. The [K+] found in CSF was 3.79 +/- 0.57(More)
The involvement of protein kinases in numerous neuronal cellular processes, including learning and memory, has been well established, particularly regarding serine/threonine kinases. In the present study, the role of protein kinases in learning was further examined through an investigation of the effects of inhibitors of tyrosine kinase activity on memory(More)