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Glutamate is the most widespread excitatory transmitter in the CNS and is probably involved in LTP, a neural phenomenon which may be associated with learning and memory formation. Intracerebral injection of large amounts of glutamate between 5 min and 2.5 min after passive avoidance learning in young chicks inhibits short-term memory, which occurs between 0(More)
Changes in the activity of the enzyme protein kinase C (PKC) have been implicated in learning and memory consolidation, and in the induction of long-term potentiation. The precise role of PKC in memory processing is still unknown. Using 1-day-old chicks trained on a single-trial passive avoidance task, we demonstrate that inhibition of PKC activity by(More)
During two specific stages of the Gibbs-Ng model of one-trial aversive learning in the neonate chick, we have recently found unequivocal evidence for a crucial involvement of astrocytes. This evidence is metabolic (utilization of the astrocyte-specific energy store, glycogen, during normal learning and inhibition of memory formation by the astrocyte(More)
Methionine sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of the exclusively glial enzyme glutamine synthetase, was shown, at a concentration of 3.5-4.5 mM, to prevent consolidation of memory for a passive avoidance task in day-old chicks. Provided the drug was administered 5-20 min before the learning task, significant retention loss was observed from the normal time(More)
Day-old chicks trained in a single trial passive avoidance task develop three sequentially dependent stages of discrimination memory. The second intermediate stage is made up of two phases: the initial A phase being susceptible to inhibition of oxidative metabolism in the tricarboxcylic acid (TCA) system with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), and a second(More)
There is substantial evidence that protein kinases, through the phosphorylation of substrate proteins, play a significant role in information processing in the brain, including processes underlying memory formation. Inhibition of the activity of the cyclic-adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase A by the highly specific inhibitor, halofantrine,(More)
While there is considerable evidence that protein kinase activity is involved in memory formation, there has been, as yet, no direct investigation of a role for protein phosphatases. However, phosphatases have been implicated in the effects of the activation of glutamate receptors of the NMDA type, in long-term depression, and in the regulation of(More)
The concentration of K+ [( K+]) was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in the extracellular fluid [( K+]e) in the medial forebrain of two-day-old chicks by means of K(+)-sensitive microelectrodes (K-ISM). The K-ISM potential in the CSF was compared with that in artificial CSF with 3, 4 or 6 mmol/l of [K+]. The [K+] found in CSF was 3.79 +/- 0.57(More)
Studies with neonate chicks, trained on a passive avoidance task, suggest that at least two shorter-term memory stages precede long-term, protein synthesis-dependent memory consolidation. Posttetanic neuronal hyperpolarization arising from two distinct mechanisms is postulated to underlie formation of these two early memory stages. Maintenance of the second(More)