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Improved control of postoperative pain is now known to reduce the incidence of morbidity. Although spinally administered narcotics have found a clear role in chest and abdominal surgery, their role in lumbar spinal surgery is debated. We conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intrathecally administered morphine(More)
The change in size of a ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysm was recorded in a series of angiograms. The aneurysm did not appear on the initial angiogram, but was seen on the second study. Incomplete filling was seen on the third angiogram, and the aneurysm appeared to have thrombosed on the fourth angiogram. On the fifth angiogram, done 5 weeks after(More)
Three patients with central nervous system symptoms due to subclavian steal syndrome were treated with proximal vertebral to common carotid artery transposition. Neurological symptoms were relieved or improved in all three, with no decrease in blood pressure or pulse in the ipsilateral upper extremity. The colorful history of this syndrome is reviewed, and(More)
Intraoperative vertebral artery blood flow was measured in two patients with symptomatic subclavian steal syndrome, before and after proximal end-to-side vertebral to common carotid artery transposition. This confirmed retrograde flow in the vertebral artery before transposition, and antegrade flow after transposition. The measured flow rates were compared(More)
Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is an important syndrome in the spectrum of cerebrovascular disease. Its clinical importance and the frequency of its clinical manifestations are often underestimated. Our experience with a large population of patients having extensive cerebrovascular disease has led us to recognize two classes of vertebrobasilar(More)
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