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BACKGROUND & AIMS Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and the proglucagon product glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are gastrointestinal hormones that are released in response to nutrient intake and promote insulin secretion. Interestingly, a subset of enteroendocrine cells express both GIP and GLP-1. We sought to determine whether GIP also(More)
Plasma uric acid (PUA) is associated with metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes but is less well understood in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our aim was to compare PUA levels and fractional uric acid excretion (FEUA) in patients with T1D vs. healthy controls (HC) during euglycemia and hyperglycemia. PUA, FEUA, blood(More)
AIMS The gastrointestinal hormone GIP promotes pancreatic islet function and exerts pro-survival actions on cultured beta-cells. However, GIP also promotes lipogenesis, thus potentially restricting its therapeutic use. The current studies evaluated the effects of a truncated GIP analog, D-Ala(2)-GIP(1-30) (D-GIP(1-30)), on glucose homeostasis and beta-cell(More)
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a hormone released from enteroendocrine K cells in response to meals. Posttranslational processing of the precursor protein pro-GIP at residue 65 by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (PC1/3) in gut K cells gives rise to the established 42-amino-acid form of GIP (GIP(1-42)). However, the(More)
Abbreviations ΔPF Filtration pressure across the glomerular capillaries πG Glomerular oncotic pressure FENa Fractional excretion of sodium KFG Ultrafiltration coefficient PGLO Glomerular hydrostatic pressure RA Afferent renal arteriolar resistances RAAS Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system RE Efferent renal arteriolar resistances SGLT2 Sodium–glucose(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by the inability of the pancreatic β-cells to secrete enough insulin to meet the demands of the body. Therefore, research of potential therapeutic approaches to treat T2DM has focused on increasing insulin output from β-cells or improving systemic sensitivity to circulating insulin. In this study, we examined(More)
The pancreatic islets of Langerhans are responsible for the regulated release of the endocrine hormones insulin and glucagon that participate in the control of glucose homeostasis. Abnormal regulation of these hormones can result in glucose intolerance and lead to the development of diabetes. Numerous efforts have been made to better understand the(More)
Aims: The gastrointestinal hormone GIP promotes pancreatic islet function and exerts pro-survival actions on cultured b-cells. However, GIP also promotes lipogenesis, thus potentially restricting its therapeutic use. The current studies evaluated the effects of a truncated GIP analog, D-Ala 2-GIP 1–30 (D-GIP 1–30), on glucose homeostasis and b-cell mass in(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and renal hyperfiltration also exhibit systemic microvascular abnormalities, including endothelial dysfunction. The effect of renal hyperfiltration on systemic blood pressure (BP) is less clear. We therefore measured BP, renal hemodynamic function and circulating renin angiotensin aldosterone system(More)
Adenosine inhibits gastric acid secretion, either directly by acting on acid-secreting parietal cells or indirectly by stimulating the release of the acid inhibitor, somatostatin. The present study examined the role of adenosine on somatostatin release in an isolated vascularly perfused mouse stomach model. Concentrations of exogenous adenosine >or= 1.0(More)