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Electronic databases, from phone to e-mails logs, currently provide detailed records of human communication patterns, offering novel avenues to map and explore the structure of social and communication networks. Here we examine the communication patterns of millions of mobile phone users, allowing us to simultaneously study the local and the global(More)
In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the space of possible analyses of the phenomenon of quantifier domain restriction, together with a set of considerations which militate against all but our own proposal. Among the many accounts we consider and reject are the ‘explicit’ approach to quantifier domain restriction discussed, for example, by(More)
In human societies the probability of strategy adoption from a given person may be affected by the personal features. Now we investigate how an artificially imposed restricted ability to reproduce, overruling ones fitness, affects an evolutionary process. For this purpose we employ the evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma game on different complex graphs.(More)
Six patients were given tracer doses of 13C15N2-phenytoin (PHT) before and four and 12 weeks after beginning monotherapy. The following significant (P less than .05) changes occurred during monotherapy: (1) Apparent (from tracer doses) PHT total clearance by linear method decreased; (2) apparent PHT elimination half-life increased; (3) apparent mean PHT(More)
Six healthy adults receiving no other medications were given tracer doses of 90 mg of stable isotope-labeled phenobarbital (PB) intravenously before, and four weeks after, and 12 weeks after beginning therapy. Serum samples were collected for 96 hours after each injection, and the concentration of stable isotope-labeled PB in each sample was determined by(More)
Standard curves and validation points for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of four drugs (carbamazepine and phenytoin at therapeutic drug monitoring concentrations and deuterium labeled carbamazepine and phenytoin at tracer dose concentrations) were computed using standard least squares linear regressions analysis and six(More)
Carbidopa (CD), a competitive inhibitor of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, is routinely administered with levodopa (LD) to patients with Parkinson disease (PD) to reduce the peripheral decarboxylation of LD to dopamine. Using a stable isotope-labeled form of LD, the authors examined in 9 PD patients the(More)
Clinical studies suggest that carbamazepine may attenuate effects of alprazolam discontinuation. Since discontinuation of chronic alprazolam in a mouse model is associated with behavioral alterations and upregulation at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor, we studied the effects of carbamazepine administration after alprazolam (2 mg/kg/day)(More)
Accurate urinary measurements of the two major metabolites of phenytoin, 5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH) and 5-(3,4-dihydroxy-cyclohexa-1,5-dienyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (dihydrodiol, DHD), are necessary for pharmacokinetic and drug-interaction studies of this commonly used antiepileptic drug. We describe a simple, rapid, acid hydrolysis, with(More)
Levetiracetam has recently been approved as an adjunctive medication for partial seizures and frequently will be added to phenytoin. The objective of this study was to determine the presence or absence of a pharmacokinetic drug interaction of levetiracetam with phenytoin. A stable isotope tracer technique using deuterium-labeled (D10) phenytoin and(More)