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This article reviews neuronal activity related to reward processing in primate and human brains. In the primate brain, neurophysiological methods provide a differentiated view of reward processing in a limited number of brain structures. Dopamine neurons respond to unpredictable rewards and produce a global reinforcement signal. Some neurons in the striatum(More)
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in healthy controls and non-demented, non-depressed Parkinsonian patients was measured using H2(15)O PET while subjects performed a prelearned pattern recognition task with delayed response. To investigate differences between the two groups in response to reward, the experimental design consisted of three reinforcement(More)
OBJECTIVES Botulinum toxin injections have become a first line therapeutic approach in cervical dystonia. Nevertheless, published dosing schedules, responder rates, and frequency of adverse events vary widely. The present prospective multicentre placebo controlled double blind dose ranging study was performed in a homogenous group of previously untreated(More)
The coordinated orientation of ciliary beat in the larval epidermis of amphibians, evident in an organized streamline pattern, suggests a planar polarity of the epithelium, i.e., a polarity within the plane of the cell sheet. It has been proposed that the direction of ciliary beat is determined at mid gastrula by a gradient of a diffusible factor produced(More)
The results of selected clinical research projects related to epidemiological, genetic, pharmacological, kinesiological, and neuroimaging aspects (SPECT, PET, MRI, functional MRI) of basal ganglia disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Multiple System Atrophy and Wilson's disease are summarized. A retrospective(More)
We used positron emission tomography and [11C]flumazenil to analyze the benzodiazepine receptor binding in symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers of the Huntington's disease gene. We found an inverse relationship between [11C]flumazenil and [11C]raclopride binding in the putamen of symptomatic patients, and interpret this result as GABA receptor upregulation.
Investigation of the fungus Phaeosphaeria spartinae, an endophyte of the marine red alga Ceramium sp., led to the isolation of spartopregnenolone (1), a metabolite whose structure includes features of triterpenes and steroids, i.e. a Δ(8,9) double bond as occurring in lanosterol type triterpenoids, a carboxyl group at C-4 which is characteristic for(More)
It is not yet established whether oxidative stress is a major cause of cell death or simply a consequence of an unknown pathogenetic factor. Concerning chronic diseases, as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease are assumed to be, it is possible that a gradual impairment of cellular defense mechanisms leads to cell damage because of toxic substances being(More)
Tobacco smoking is the most frequent form of substance abuse. Several studies have shown that the addictive action of nicotine is mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. This system is implicated in reward processing. In order to better understand the relationship between nicotine addiction and reward in humans, we investigated differences between(More)
The effects of various Flustra foliacea metabolites on different types of human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes were investigated. Whereas most of the compounds tested had a small blocking effect, one of them, deformylflustrabromine, selectively increased the current obtained in alpha4beta2 receptors when(More)