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The human multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) gene family contains at least six members: MRP1, encoding the multidrug-resistance protein; MRP2 or cMOAT, encoding the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter; and four homologs, called MRP3, MRP4, MRP5, and MRP6. In this report, we characterize MRP3, the closest homolog of MRP1. Cell lines were(More)
Transfection of multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) MRP1 and MRP2 in human ovarian carcinoma 2008 cells conferred a marked level of resistance to short-term (1-4 h) exposure to the polyglutamatable antifolates methotrexate (MTX; 21-74-fold), ZD1694 (4-138-fold), and GW1843 (101-156-fold). Evidence for MRP-mediated antifolate efflux relies upon the(More)
The transport properties and growth-inhibitory potential of 37 classic and novel antifolate compounds have been tested in vitro against human and murine cell lines expressing different levels of the reduced folate carrier (RFC), the membrane-associated folate binding protein (mFBP), or both. The intracellular targets of these drugs were dihydrofolate(More)
Most current chemotherapy regimens for cancer consist of empirically designed combinations, based on efficacy and lack of overlapping toxicity. In the development of combinations, several aspects are often overlooked: (1) possible metabolic and biological interactions between drugs, (2) scheduling, and (3) different pharmacokinetic profiles. Antimetabolites(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the patient's preference for oral UFT/leucovorin (LV) or intravenous (i.v.) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/LV chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer and to compare 5-FU exposure with these two treatment options. A total of 37 previously untreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer were randomised to start treatment(More)
PURPOSE To determine the time-dependence of fluorouracil (5FU)-induced thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition in colon cancer patients, the effect of leucovorin (LV), and the relation to response. PATIENTS AND METHODS A 5FU injection (500 mg/m2) was given to 47 patients with advanced colorectal cancer; tumor biopsy specimens were obtained 1 to 72 hours(More)
2',2'-Difluorodeoxycytidine (Gemcitabine, dFdC) is a relatively new deoxycytidine antimetabolite, with established activity against ovarian cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. dFdC is assumed to exert its antitumour effect mainly by incorporation of the triphosphate dFdCTP into DNA. We determined the sensitivity to dFdC of six cell lines derived from(More)
Six cell lines differing in histological origin were studied regarding the growth inhibitory effect of fluoropyrimidines in relation to their metabolism. The human colon carcinoma cell line WiDr was most sensitive to 5-fluorouracil (FUra) (50% growth inhibitory concentration, 0.7 microM) and to its analogue 5'deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'dFUR) (50% growth(More)
Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an essential enzyme for the de novo synthesis of thymidylate and subsequently DNA synthesis. TS has been used as a target for cancer chemotherapy in the development of fluoropyrimidines such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine and of novel folate-based TS inhibitors such as ZD1694 (Tomudex, Raltitrexed), ZD9331,(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanism of action of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been associated with inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS) and incorporation of 5-FU into RNA and DNA, but limited data are available in human tumor tissue for the latter. We therefore measured incorporation in human tumor biopsy specimens after administration of a test dose of 5-FU alone or(More)