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The autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is defined as the manifestation of at least two endocrine autoimmune diseases. In order to take the wide spectrum of components and the variations of the disease fully into account, APS is usually divided up into the rare juvenile type (APS I) and the more common adult type (APS II-IV). APS I is caused by a(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder caused by inflammatory destruction of the pancreatic tissue. The etiopathogenesis and characteristics of the pathologic process of pancreatic destruction are well described. In addition, the putative susceptibility genes for T1D as a monoglandular disease and the relation to polyglandular autoimmune syndrome(More)
BACKGROUND Although the pathomechanisms of autoimmune diseases in various organs remain unresolved, an accumulation of autoimmune diseases in individual patients has been observed. An overlap of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) or primary sclerosing cirrhosis has been well documented. However, the overlap of autoimmune diseases(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS), is characterized by the coexistence of several autoimmune diseases, affecting predominantly the endocrine glands. The juvenile form (PAS type I) is distinguished from the adult type II in which autoimmune thyroiditis, adrenal cortical insufficiency and diabetes mellitus type I predominate.(More)
The polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) comprise a wide spectrum of autoimmune disorders and are divided into a very rare juvenile (PAS type I) and a relatively common adult type with (PAS II) or without adrenal failure (PAS III). First clinical manifestation of PAS I usually occurs in childhood, whereas PAS II mostly occurs during the third and fourth(More)
The polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) comprise a wide spectrum of autoimmune disorders. There exist a juvenile (PAS I) and an adult type (PAS II). The nature of PAS has been based on the presence of lymphocyte infiltration in the affected gland, organ-specific antibodies in the serum, cellular immune defects and an association with the human(More)
The heart is a major target organ for thyroid hormone action, and marked changes occur in cardiac function in patients with hypo- or hyperthyroidism. T(3)-induced changes in cardiac function can result from direct or indirect T(3) effects. Direct effects result from T(3) action in the heart itself and are mediated by nuclear or extranuclear mechanisms.(More)
OBJECTIVE Iodine is essential for normal thyroid function and the majority of individuals tolerate a wide range of dietary levels. However, a subset of individuals, on exposure to iodine, develop thyroid dysfunction. In this double-blind trial, we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of low-dose iodine compared with those of levo-thyroxine (T4) in(More)
OBJECTIVE Ocular diseases markedly impair daily function. In Graves' orbitopathy (GO), an associated psychosocial burden is present due to disfiguring proptosis and/or diplopia, signs with significant impact on functional status and well-being. We have therefore surveyed and assessed the psychosocial morbidity of GO. DESIGN A prospective controlled study(More)