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We examined the effects on human 3D tracking performance of several common defects of immersing virtual environments: spatial sensor distortion, visual latency and low update rates. Results show: 1) Removal of relatively small static distortion had minor effects on tracking accuracy, 2) An Adapted Cooper-Harper controllability scale proved the most(More)
During the past decade, requirements within the US defence community for simulation-based tools to support acquisition, planning, (team) training and analysis, have resulted in a standard for distributed simulation known as DIS (Distributed Interactive Simulation). The potential advantages of distributed simulation technologies are evident: increased(More)
The minimally invasive nature of endoscopic surgery allows operations to be performed on patients through small incisions, often under local anaesthesia. Patient recovery times and cosmetic detriment are thus greatly reduced, while overall quality of care is improved. Presently, surgeons are trained to perform endosurgical procedures in a number of ways:(More)
We use one of the available frame buffers for storage and direct display of the bi nary voxel data set. The other frame buffer holds either a surface normal view, a depth-shaded pre-image or the binary voxel data set of a secondary object. Altering the light direction or shading function IS performed by manipulating the hardware output lookup tables. An(More)
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