G. J. Brakenhoff

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The temporal and spatial progression of DNA replication in interphase nuclei of eukaryotic cells has been investigated. Application of a recently developed technique for the immunofluorescence double staining of cell nuclei labelled first with iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) and subsequently with chlorodeoxyuridine (CldUrd) allows the visualization of two(More)
Ki-67 is a commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody, which reacts with a nuclear antigen in proliferating cells. The antibody can be used to determine the growth fraction of human tumours in situ and has been shown to be of prognostic importance. In this study it is shown that in interphase cells Ki-67 reacts with an antigen, mainly present in the(More)
In interphase cells the proliferation-associated antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody Ki-67 is almost exclusively located in the nucleoli. When cells at several stages of mitosis were examined for the localization of the Ki-67 antigen, a striking redistribution could be observed. During prophase the distinct nucleolar Ki-67 fluorescence changed to a(More)
Third harmonic generation microscopy is used to make dynamical images of living systems for the first time. A 100 fs excitation pulse at 1.2 aem results in a 400 nm signal which is generated directly within the specimen. Chara plant rhizoids have been imaged, showing dynamic plant activity, and non-fading image characteristics even with continuous viewing,(More)
A fluorescence image calibration method is presented based on the use of standardized uniformly fluorescing reference layers. It is demonstrated to be effective for the correction of non-uniform imaging characteristics across the image (shading correction) as well as for relating fluorescence intensities between images taken with different microscopes or(More)
To estimate the extent of ordering of chromosomes, confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to make three-dimensional images from optical sections. For Crepis capillaris, which has 2n = 6 easily recognizable chromosomes, a statistically significant sample of 75 Feulgen-stained root tip anaphases was analysed. A comparison of the observed chromosome(More)
The bilateral imaging approach known from confocal applications operating in the line mode was used to realize real-time two-photon imaging. It is shown that the sectioning inherent to two-photon imaging could be improved by the introduction of a confocal line aperture in the imaging path. Using a high-power, low-repetition-rate amplified Ti:sapphire(More)
The relationship between cell shape and function has long been of interest. However, although the behaviour of the cytoskeleton during the cell cycle has been studied extensively variations in the shape and three-dimensional substructure of the nucleus are less well documented. The spatial distribution of chromatin has previously been studied by a(More)
Imaging in confocal microscopy is characterized by the ability to make a selective image of just one plane inside a specimen, virtually unaffected -within certain limits- by the out-of-focus regions above and below it. This property, called optical sectioning, is accompanied by improved imaging transverse to the optical axis. We have coupled a confocal(More)
An image cytometric method for quantifying integrated fluorescence was developed to measure the relative DNA contents of bacterial nucleoids. Image analysis was performed with newly developed macros in combination with the program Object-Image, all downloadable from http://simon.bio.uva.nl/object-image.html. Four aspects of the method were investigated. (i)(More)