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Enzymatic conversion of hydrocodone to hydromorphone is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2D6, which is inactive in about 7% of Caucasians [poor metabolizers (PMs)] and can be inhibited by quinidine pretreatment in the remainder [extensive metabolizers (EMs)]. If hydromorphone, having a substantially higher mu-receptor affinity than hydrocodone, contributes(More)
Learning needs assessment is the term applied to the process of identifying or diagnosing a learner's educational needs. It is the foundation of a systematic continuing medical education (CME) programme. Needs assessment has been identified as the most pressing problem of medical education directors in North America. Furthermore, the CME learning needs,(More)
Remifentanil is a short-acting, esterase-metabolized opioid analgesic. This study compared the abuse liability of remifentanil with that of fentanyl and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twelve recreational users of opioids received increasing doses of remifentanil (0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4, and 3.0 microg/kg), fentanyl (0.4, 0.8, 1.3, 2.0,(More)
This study examined anesthetic development and hemodynamic changes during two techniques of hyperbaric lidocaine administration through 27-gauge intrathecal catheters for continuous spinal anesthesia in 55 elderly patients undergoing transurethral prostatic resection. Twenty-five patients were randomly assigned to receive hyperbaric lidocaine 5% solution in(More)
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