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Water channel is a protein which regulates transcellular water permeability. Among mRNA expression of six principal mammalian water channels, AQ4 mRNA expression was highest in the brain. Water channels are supposed to regulate cerebral edema but the detailed physiological and pathological function is unknown. Brain edema has been analyzed as an aspect of(More)
The difficulty in the operation for basilar tip aneurysm is the restriction in surgical working space. To resolve this problem, aggressive skull base surgery has been reported, but these techniques are not prevalent. Pterional and subtemporal approaches are commonly used for basilar tip aneurysms. In an attempt to increase the surgical working space during(More)
This technical note describes a simple method for reducing the dead space created by craniotome due to the loss of bone dust and improving the cosmetic outcome following a craniotomy. After drilling the burr holes for the craniotomy, the bone between the holes is drilled away in a standard fashion except that multiple regions of about 1 cm in length are(More)
This report describes the removal of the roof of the external auditory meatus in approaching the tentorial edge, the cerebropontine angle, hippocampal brainstem lesions, and upper clival lesions. This procedure not only provides more space in approaching the tentorial edge or upper brainstem, it also provides a wider entry space for approaching posterior(More)
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