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Recent developments in the theory of choice under uncertainty and risk yield a pessimistic decision theory that replaces the classical expected utility criterion with a Choquet expectation that accentuates the likelihood of the least favorable outcomes. A parallel theory has recently emerged in the literature on risk assessment. It is shown that pessimistic(More)
BACKGROUND Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction usually caused by antibodies to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and occasionally to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). D-penicillamine is a therapeutic agent for several diseases, but can also induce a number of immune-mediated disorders, including MG, as a(More)
Several studies have suggested that the autoantibodies (autoAbs) against muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients are the main pathogenic factor in MG; however, this belief has not yet been confirmed with direct observations. Although animals immunized with AChR or injected with anti-AChR monoclonal Abs, or with crude human MG(More)
Acquired autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common disease that affects the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). MG is associated with autoantibodies (auto-Abs) to components of the NMJ. About 85-90% of MG patients have auto-Abs against the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR), while about half of the remaining patients have auto-Abs against(More)
Myasthenia gravis (MG), a prototypic antibody-mediated autoimmune disease, presents an excellent target for scientific research aimed at a better understanding of the disease itself and the source that triggers an autoimmune reaction in an organism. MG is a neuromuscular disease caused mainly by an autoimmune response against the nicotinic acetylcholine(More)
The muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the major autoantigen in the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis (MG), in which autoantibodies bind to, and cause loss of, nAChRs. Antibody-mediated nAChR loss is caused by the action of complement and by the acceleration of nAChR internalization caused by antibody-induced cross-linking of nAChR(More)
Federal Reserve Board This paper studies when and by how much the Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank change their target interest rates. I develop a new non-linear bivariate framework, which allows for elaborate dynamics and potential interdependence between the two countries, as opposed to linear feedback rules, such as a Taylor rule, and I use(More)
NOTE: International Finance Discussion Papers are preliminary materials circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment. References in publications to International Finance Discussion Papers (other than an acknowledgment that the writer has had access to unpublished material) should be cleared Abstract This paper studies when and by how much the Fed(More)