G. Frazier

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The combination of resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) and heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) provides a versatile technology for implementing microwave digital and mixed-signal applications. Here we demonstrate the first monolithic flash RTD/HFET analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The first pass ADC achieved 2.7 effective bits at 2 GSps. The one(More)
A three-dimensional large-scale integration (LSI) process for fabrication of resonant tunneling diodes and heterojunction field-effect transistors on InP has been demonstrated, combining two of today's fastest semiconductor devices. Demonstrations of this technology now include multigigahertz digital and mixed-signal circuits and ultralow power SRAM(More)
An integrated tunnel diode/transistor process can be used to increase the speed of signal processing circuitry or reduce power at the same speed; in memory applications, tunnel diodes can be used to reduce static power dissipation (>20× in Si, >1000× in III-V materials) relative to conventional approaches. This paper summarizes recent progress in InP and(More)
The inherent bistability and picosecond timescale switching of the resonant tunneling diode (RTD) provides an ideal element for the design of digital circuits and analog signal quantizers in the 10-100 GHz domain. New differential RTD-based circuits for quantizers and a first-order Sigma-Delta modulator capable of operating at 10 GHz and beyond are(More)
A simple growth model is proposed for plant cell aggregates which accounts for leakage of a single intermediate metabolite from the aggregates to the medium. This model predicts a lag phase in the growth curve whose extent is determined by the intermediate metabolite leakage coefficient and its equilibrium distribution coefficient between the medium and the(More)
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