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We systematically reviewed the literature to estimate the incubation and latent periods of Ebola virus disease. We found limited epidemiological data from individuals with discrete 1-day exposures. Available data suggest that the incubation and latent periods may differ, and mathematical models may be improved by distinguishing between the two periods.
The Peruvian National Tuberculosis Control Program issued guidelines in 2006 specifying criteria for culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST), including district-level rapid DST. All patients referred for culture and DST in 2 districts of Lima, Peru, during January 2005-November 2008 were monitored prospectively. Of 1,846 patients, 1,241 (67.2%) had(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence is sparse regarding the optimal construction of regimens to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis disease due to strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to at least both isoniazid and rifampin. Given the low potency of many second-line antituberculous drugs, we hypothesized that an aggressive regimen of at least 5 likely(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) regimens often contain pyrazinamide (PZA) even if susceptibility to the drug has not been confirmed. This gap is due to the limited availability and reliability of PZA susceptibility testing. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of PZA resistance using the Wayne assay among TB patients in Lima, Peru,(More)
BACKGROUND Studies show obesity decreases risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease. There is limited evidence on whether high body mass index also protects against TB infection; how very high body mass indices influence TB risk; or whether nutritional status predicts this risk in children. We assessed the impact of body mass index on incident TB infection and(More)
BACKGROUND During the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, policy-makers were confronted with difficult decisions on how best to test the efficacy of EVD vaccines. On one hand, many were reluctant to withhold a vaccine that might prevent a fatal disease from study participants randomized to a control arm. On the other, regulatory bodies called for(More)
Rifamycins exhibit concentration-dependent killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis; higher exposures potentially induce better outcomes. We randomized 180 tuberculosis patients in Peru to receive rifampin at 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg/day. A total of 168 had noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses; 67% were sampled twice, and 33% were sampled six times. The doses(More)
Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing is the current "gold standard" for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to antituberculous drugs. Pyrazinamide is one antituberculous drug for which the correlation between in vitro resistance and clinical outcomes remains unclear. Here we performed latent class analysis (LCA) to develop a consensus gold(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis deaths have decreased worldwide over the past decade. We sought to evaluate the effect of HIV status on tuberculosis mortality among patients undergoing treatment for tuberculosis in Lima, Peru, a low HIV prevalence setting. METHODS We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients(More)
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