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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) comprise a large family of key defence enzymes against xenobiotic toxicity. Here we describe the comprehensive characterisation of this important multigene family in the model monocot species rice [Oryza sativa (L.)]. Furthermore, we investigate the molecular evolution of the family based on the analysis of (1) the patterns(More)
We analyze coronal holes present on the Sun during the extended minimum between Cycles 23 and 24, study their evolution, examine the consequences for the solar wind speed near the Earth, and compare it with the previous minimum in 1996. We identify coronal holes and determine their size and location using a combination of EUV observations from SOHO/EIT and(More)
[1] We construct a solar cycle strength prediction tool by modifying a calibrated flux-transport dynamo model, and make predictions of the amplitude of upcoming solar cycle 24. We predict that cycle 24 will have a 30–50% higher peak than cycle 23, in contrast to recent predictions by Svalgaard et al. and Schatten, who used a precursor method to forecast(More)
[1] Observations from the recent Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) solar minimum campaign are compared to last cycle’s Whole Sun Month (WSM) to demonstrate that sunspot numbers, while providing a good measure of solar activity, do not provide sufficient information togaugesolar andheliosphericmagneticcomplexity and its effect at the Earth. Thepresent(More)
Motivated by observed anomalous features in cycle 23, as inferred from records of photospheric magnetic flux, we develop a flux transport dynamo–based scheme in order to investigate the physical cause of such anomalies. In this first study we focus on understanding anomalies occurring in the polar field evolutionary pattern in cycle 23, namely, why the(More)
Determining the state of the corona prior to CMEs is crucial to understanding and ultimately predicting solar eruptions. A common and compelling feature of CMEs is their three-part morphology, as seen in white-light observations of a bright expanding loop, followed by a relatively dark cavity, and finally a bright core associated with an erupting(More)
The excimer laser was thought to be an appropriate tool for the removal of bone cement without damaging the bone. However, due to its low ablation rate, its clinical use in total hip revision arthroplasty proved to be impossible. This experimental study was designed to evaluate the maximal ablation rate by adjusting the laser's parameters. Energy density,(More)
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