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Eighty women receiving spinal anesthesia for postpartum tubal ligation were entered into a double-blind, randomized protocol studying the effects of epinephrine on intrathecal fentanyl-induced postoperative analgesia. All patients received 70 mg hyperbaric lidocaine with either 0.2 mg epinephrine (LE), 10 micrograms fentanyl (LF), epinephrine and fentanyl(More)
The use of 2-kHz 64 × 64 very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators as the input and filter planes of a VanderLugt-type optical correlator is discussed. Liquid-crystal layer thickness variations that are present in the devices are analyzed, and the effects on correlator performance are(More)
A new continuously tunable color filter, which uses smectic A(*) liquid-crystal half-wave plates, is described and experimentally demonstrated. Multiple-stage Lyot filters with broad tunability and high finesse can be constructed with this design. The transmission characteristics of a single-stage filter, which is continuously tuned over 115 nm of the(More)
Little conclusive evidence exists regarding the best way to educate and evaluate skill acquisition of advanced surgical trainees, despite it being recognised as one of the most important aspects of training. Many laparoscopic trainers have been produced with complex engineering at great cost, but, there seems to be a reluctance to use the most precious(More)
During the last few years, much effort has been devoted to measuring the ability of sport teams, as well as that of the individual players. Much research has been on the game of cricket, and the comparison, or ranking, of players according to their abilities. This study continues preceding research using an optimization approach, namely, a binary integer(More)
We present what we believe to be the first implementation of a Fabry-Perot (FP) etalon using polymer cholesteric liquid-crystal mirrors. These polymer mirrors have each been fabricated onto a single substrate, which allows the FP cavity spacing to be only a few micrometers wide. For the experimental results presented, cavity lengths of 13.8 and 7.6 microm(More)