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The term “dispersionless injection” refers to a class of events which show simultaneous enhancement (injection) of electrons and ions with different energies usually seen at or near geosynchronous orbit. We show that dispersionless injections can be understood as a consequence of changes in the electric and magnetic fields by modeling an electron injection(More)
1 Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Toyokawa 442, Japan. zMax-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching, Germany. 31nstitute of Ionospheric and Space Research, National Observatory c)f Athens, 15236 Pelea I?enteli, Greece. ‘l Institute de Pesquisas Espacialk, Siio Jose dos Campos, !Mo Paulo, Brazil,(More)
The advanced energetic particle spectrometer RAPID on board Cluster can provide a complete description of the relevant particle parameters velocity, V , and atomic mass, A, over an energy range from 30 keV up to 1.5 MeV. We present the first measurements taken by RAPID during the commissioning and the early operating phases. The orbit on 14 January 2001,(More)
[1] We describe how assimilation of radiation belt data with a simple radial diffusion code can be used to identify and adjust for unknown physics in the model. We study the dropout and the following enhancement of relativistic electrons during a moderate storm on 25 October 2002. We introduce a technique that uses an ensemble Kalman filter and the(More)
Recent analysis of satellite data obtained during the 9 October 2012 geomagnetic storm identified the development of peaks in electron phase space density, which are compelling evidence for local electron acceleration in the heart of the outer radiation belt, but are inconsistent with acceleration by inward radial diffusive transport. However, the precise(More)
The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth's magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside(More)
Past studies of radiation belt relativistic electrons have favored active storm time periods, while the effects of small geomagnetic storms (Dst > −50 nT) have not been statistically characterized. In this timely study, given the current weak solar cycle, we identify 342 small storms from 1989 through 2000 and quantify the corresponding change in(More)
Magnetospheric banded chorus is enhanced whistler waves with frequencies ωr < Ωe, where Ωe is the electron cyclotron frequency, and a characteristic spectral gap at ωr ≃ Ωe∕2. This paper uses spacecraft observations and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma to test the hypothesis that banded chorus(More)
We present observations of the radiation belts from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron and Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy dependence and L shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on 1 March in more detail. The(More)
Since their discovery more than 50 years ago, Earth's Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is composed predominantly of megaelectron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days, depending primarily on(More)