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In degenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), transplantation of neural multipotent (stem) precursor cells (NPCs) is aimed at replacing damaged neural cells. Here we show that in CNS inflammation, NPCs are able to promote neuroprotection by maintaining undifferentiated features and exerting unexpected immune-like functions. In a mouse model(More)
Classical chemoattractants and chemokines trigger integrin-dependent adhesion of blood leukocytes to vascular endothelium and also direct subsequent extravasation and migration into tissues. In studies of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil responses to formyl peptides and to interleukin 8, we show evidence of involvement of the atypical zeta protein kinase(More)
Lymphocyte recruitment into the brain is a critical event in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We developed a novel intravital microscopy model to directly analyze through the skull the interactions between lymphocytes and the endothelium in cerebral venules of mice. No adhesive interactions were observed(More)
Chemokines trigger rapid integrin-dependent lymphocyte arrest to vascular endothelium. We show that the chemokines SLC, ELC, and SDF-1alpha rapidly induce lateral mobility and transient increase of affinity of the beta2 integrin LFA-1. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) activity blocks mobility but not affinity changes and prevents(More)
Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors favor both T cell quiescence and trafficking through their control of the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression, adhesion, and homing. In this article, we report that the product of the fam65b gene is a new transcriptional target of FOXO1 that regulates RhoA activity. We show that family with(More)
Leukocyte trafficking from the blood into the tissues represents a key process during inflammation and requires multiple steps mediated by adhesion molecules and chemoattractants. Inflammation has a detrimental role in several diseases, and in such cases, the molecular mechanisms controlling leukocyte migration are potential therapeutic targets. Over the(More)
Sulfatides have been established recently as ligands for L-selectin, and we investigated whether they trigger transmembrane signals through ligation of L-selectin. We found that sulfatides trigger the increase of cytosolic free calcium in neutrophils and that this effect was strictly dependent on sulfation of the galactose ring, as non-sulfated(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal recessive disease characterized by widespread muscle damage throughout the body. This increases the difficulty of cell or gene therapy based on direct injections into muscles. One way to circumvent this obstacle would be to use circulating cells capable of homing to the sites of lesions. Here, we showed that stem cell(More)
Migration of lymphocytes from blood into the brain is a critical event in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Previous observations made in our laboratory showed that protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors were able to block lymphocyte adhesion to brain endothelium and prevent the entry(More)
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an attractive reverse-genetics tool for studies of gene function. However, efficient VIGS has only been accomplished in a few plant species. In order to extend the application of VIGS, we examined whether a VIGS vector based on Pea early browning virus (PEBV) would produce recognizable phenotypes in Pisum sativum. A(More)