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Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone), a flavonoid originated from the root of a medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activities in various cell types including macrophages. In this work, we have found that wogonin is a potent neuroprotector from natural source. Wogonin inhibited inflammatory(More)
Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a secreted glycoprotein that has pleiotropic activity in aggressive cancers. In our study, we examined the expression and function of CHI3L1 in glioma cells. CHI3L1 was highly expressed in human glioma tissue, whereas its expression in normal brain tissue was very low. CHI3L1 suppression by shRNA reduced glioma cell invasion,(More)
Obesity-induced diabetes is associated with chronic inflammation and is considered a risk factor for neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that an AMP-activated protein kinase activator, resveratrol (RES), which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects, would attenuate peripheral and central inflammation and improve memory deficit in mice(More)
Glutamate cytotoxicity contributes to neuronal degeneration in many central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as epilepsy and ischemia. We previously reported that a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet, the ketogenic diet (KD), protects against kainic acid-induced hippocampal cell death in mice. We hypothesized based on these findings that ketosis(More)
Kainic acid (KA) induced oxidative stress is associated with hippocampal cell death. Recent studies suggest that curcumin, a potent antioxidant, may provide protection for KA-induced oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of curcumin treatment on hippocampal reactive astrocytes in mice with KA-induced seizures. Eighteen hours after curcumin(More)
In vitro exposure of microglial cells to hypoxia induces cellular activation. Also, in vivo studies of glial activation following ischemic hypoxia have shown that neuronal cell death is followed by microglial activation. Thus, it is likely that toxic inflammatory mediators produced by activated microglial cells under hypoxic conditions may exacerbate(More)
Neurosteroids are synthesized de novo and involved in a variety of physiological functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) plays an essential role in the steroidogenesis of peripheral endocrine glands, its presence and role in the brain had been previously questioned because of(More)
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a mammalian NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase that regulates cellular metabolism and inflammatory response. The organ-specific deletion of SIRT1 induces local inflammation and insulin resistance in dietary and genetic obesity. Macrophage-mediated inflammation contributes to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, however, the(More)
Enhanced apoptosis has been observed in the placentas of women with preeclampsia, but few studies have examined changes at the molecular level. This study was designed to detect genes specifically expressed in full-term preeclamptic placentas. Tissue samples were collected immediately after cesarean delivery from 11 normal and 8 preeclamptic placentas at(More)
Neuronal damage after seizure is correlated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage. Adiponectin (Ad) has shown protective effects on endothelial function. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ad on cell survival and BBB integrity in the mouse hippocampus after kainic acid (KA) treatment. Twenty-four hours after intracerebroventricular injection of(More)