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A massive degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in the midbrain is characteristic of Parkinson's disease. Inflammation in the brain has long been speculated to play a role in the pathogenesis of this neurological disorder. Recently, we reported that treatment of primary rat mesencephalic mixed neuron-glia cultures with(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine how memory-encoding tasks elicit functional perfusion change in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS Twelve subjects with aMCI and 14 age-matched cognitively normal (CN) subjects were recruited for this study. Arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI (ASL-MRI) was employed to measure regional cerebral blood(More)
Previous studies have shown that dopamine (DA) is involved in electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA). L-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), a DA receptor antagonist was proved to potentiate EAA in both laboratory research and clinical practice. In the present study SK&F-38393 and quinpirole (Qui), selective agonists of D1 or D2 receptors respectively were injected(More)
The aim of this study was to understand the possible involvement of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in rat brain ischemic injury by examining the expression and the cellular location of GDNF with molecular biological and morphological techniques. Expression of GDNF mRNA and protein was first increased as early as 2h after(More)
Homoploid hybrid speciation is the formation of a new hybrid species without change in chromosome number. So far, there has been a lack of direct molecular evidence for hybridization generating novel traits directly involved in animal speciation. Heliconius butterflies exhibit bright aposematic color patterns that also act as cues in assortative mating.(More)
Aspirin-triggered Lipoxin A4 (ATL), as a Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) epimer, is endogenously produced by aspirin-acetylated cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and plays a vital role in endogenous anti-inflammation via the LXA4 receptor (ALX). Recent investigations have indicated that spinal neuroinflammation and the activation of the Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2)/Signal Transducers and(More)
In this paper, we aim to study the cognitive integration of asynchronous natural or non-natural auditory and visual information in videos of real-world events. Videos with asynchronous semantically consistent or inconsistent natural sound or speech were used as stimuli in order to compare the difference and similarity between multisensory integrations of(More)
In this paper, we aimed to study the semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration. A moving particle, which speed varied, was taken as a visual stimulus, while a simple tone, which frequency varied, was used as an auditory stimulus, both were synchronously presented to subjects in the form of a(More)
The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and whether this control shows any(More)
BACKGROUND Protein-coding change is one possible genetic mechanism underlying the evolution of adaptive wing colour pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies. Here we determine whether 38 putative genes within two major Heliconius patterning loci, HmYb and HmB, show evidence of positive selection. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes(More)