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Using reflection high-energy electron diffraction, we have observed diffraction patterns from both vertically aligned and randomly oriented multiwalled carbon nanotube samples. The patterns, for both samples, consist of rings and are similar to the patterns observed in x-ray diffraction from multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The ring radii are roughly(More)
A retrospective cohort study was carried out in 1982-1983 among 28,460 benzene-exposed workers (15,643 males, 12,817 females) from 233 factories and 28,257 control workers (16,621 males, 12,366 females) from 83 factories in 12 large cities in China. All-cause mortality was significantly higher among the exposed (265.46/100,000 person-years) than among the(More)
The giant magnetoresistance GMR of multilayered Co/Cu nanowires potentiostatically electrodeposited inside the pores of an anodized alumina template was studied in the current perpendicular to the plane CPP geometry. The maximum magnetoresistance change of 13.5% was observed for Co 8 nm /Cu 10 nm nanowires at room temperature. The interfacial roughness and/(More)
The dynamic roughening of amorphous silicon nitride growth front prepared by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is presented. Morphology of the films grown at different substrate temperatures ~from 50 to 350 °C! for various lengths of deposition time was measured ex situ using atomic force microscopy. The dynamic scaling exponents are measured as(More)
In this paper we report on the morphological evolution of thin films grown by commonly employed deposition techniques, such as sputtering and chemical vapor deposition. In these deposition techniques, an angular distribution of incident particle flux leads to the shadowing effect, which often plays an important role in defining the growth front morphology.(More)
The growth-front roughness of amorphous silicon films grown by dc magnetron sputtering at low pressure has been investigated using atomic force microscopy. The interface width w increases as a power law of deposition time t, w;t, with b50.4160.01, and the lateral correlation length j grows as j;t, with 1/z 50.4260.02. The roughness exponent extracted from(More)
We observed a scaling behavior during the shadowing growth of isolated Si, Co, Cu, and W nanocolumnar structures on Si substrates using the oblique angle deposition with substrate rotation ~also known as glancing angle deposition or simply GLAD!. The width of the isolated columns, W , grew as a function of column length, d , in a power law form, W;d, where(More)
The magnetic properties of columnar Co films on SiO2 substrates fabricated by oblique-angle incident thermal evaporation at room temperature were systematically examined by multiple techniques, including magnetic force microscopy ~MFM!, magneto-optical Kerr effect ~MOKE!, and scanning electron microscopy ~SEM!. Films with thickness ranging from 50 to 500 nm(More)